Advertisement

Inducing state compliance with international fisheries law: lessons from two case studies concerning the Republic of Korea’s IUU fishing

  • Hyun Jung KimEmail author
Original Paper
  • 12 Downloads

Abstract

Despite the expansion of international fisheries law, fish stocks are still threatened by illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing. An inevitable question arises: What can be done to better induce state compliance with international fisheries law? This article reveals a factor affecting compliance with international fisheries law that had not yet been explored in the compliance studies literature: the processes for implementing that law. It notes that one actor’s implementation processes may enhance other actors’ compliance with international fisheries law if the processes aim to affect others’ behaviour and others conform to them. Accordingly, the purpose of this article is to identify conditions under which the implementation processes have such a socialisation effect. These conditions are explored in two case studies concerning IUU fishing: that existing between the Republic of Korea and the European Union (2013–2015) and that between the Republic of Korea and the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (2011). The case studies show that, from an institutional perspective, the design of transparent implementation processes with dialogue between the actors involved is crucial and, in terms of social context, the international leverage and reputations of the implementing actor and the targeted actor, as well as collaboration with media and civil society, are also significant factors in the processes’ socialisation effect.

Keywords

IUU fishing Fishery Compliance Implementation Republic of Korea International fisheries law 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research is a revised version of the conference paper presented at the 6th Annual Junior Faculty Forum for International Law, Nottingham, UK, on 10 May 2017. Non-English instruments are translated by the author unless otherwise indicated.

References

  1. Barnett, M. (2014). Social constructivism. In J. Baylis, S. Smith, & P. Owens (Eds.), The globalization of world politics: An introduction to international relations (6th ed., pp. 155–168). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bodansky, D. (2007). Legitimacy. In T. Gehring, D. Bodansky, J. Brunnée, & E. Hey (Eds.), Oxford handbook of international environmental law (pp. 704–723). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bothe, M. (2010). Compliance. Max planck encyclopedia of public international law. http://opil.ouplaw.com. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  4. Brunnée, J., & Toope, S. J. (2010). Legitimacy and legality in international law: An interactional account. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Buchanan, A., & Keohane, R. O. (2008). The legitimacy of global governance institutions. In R. Wolfrum & V. Röben (Eds.), Legitimacy in international law (pp. 25–62). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. CCAMLR. (2008). Conservation Measure 10-06 (2008), Scheme to promote compliance by contracting party vessels with CCAMLR conservation measures, adopted at meeting: CCAMLR-XXVII, period in Force: 2008–2016. https://www.ccamlr.org/en/measure-10-06-2008. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  7. CCAMLR. (2011a). Report of the Standing Committee on Implementation and Compliance (SCIC), 2011. https://www.ccamlr.org/en/system/files/e-cc-xxx-a6.pdf. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  8. CCAMLR. (2011b). Report of the Thirtieth Meeting of the Commission, 24-October–4 November 2011, CCAMLR-XXX. https://www.ccamlr.org/en/system/files/e-cc-xxx.pdf. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  9. Chayes, A., & Chayes, A. H. (1993). On compliance. International Organization, 47(2), 175–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chayes, A., & Chayes, A. H. (1995). The new sovereignty: Compliance with international regulatory agreements. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Checkel, J. T. (1997). International norms and domestic politics: bridging the rationalist—constructivist divide. European Journal of International Relations, 3(4), 473–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Council of the European Union. (2008). Council Regulation (EC) No. 1005/2008 of 29 September 2008 Establishing a Community System to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing, Amending Regulations (EEC) No 2847/93, (EC) No 1936/2001 and (EC) No 601/2004 and Repealing Regulations (EC) No 1093/94 and (EC) No 1447/1999. OJ 2008 L 286/1.Google Scholar
  13. Council of the European Union. (2013). European Union–Republic of Korea Summit Joint Press Statement, 8 November 2013. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/ec/139429.pdf. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  14. Embassy/Mission of the Republic of Korea to the Kingdom of Belgium and the European Union. (2018). Korea–EU Economic Relations. http://overseas.mofa.go.kr/be-ko/wpge/m_7588/contents.do. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  15. European Commission. (2013). Commission Decision of 26 November 2013 on Notifying the Third Countries that the Commission Considers as Possible of Being Identified as Non-cooperating Third Countries pursuant to Council Regulation (EC) No 1005/2008 Establishing a Community System to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing (2013/C 346/03). OJ 2013 C 346/26. Google Scholar
  16. European Commission. (2015). EU Acts on Illegal Fishing: Yellow Card Issued to Thailand While South Korea & Philippines Are Cleared, Press Release, 21 April 2015. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-15-4806_en.htm. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  17. European Commission. (n.d.). The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). https://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/cfp_en. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  18. FAO. (2001). International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  19. FAO. (2002). Implementation of the international plan of action to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries 9). Rome: FAO. http://www.fao.org/3/a-y3536e.pdf. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  20. FAO. (2016). The state of world fisheries and aquaculture 2016: Contributing to food security and nutrition for all. Rome: FAO. http://www.fao.org/3/a-i5555e.pdf. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  21. Finnemore, M., & Sikkink, K. (1998). International norm dynamics and political change. International Organization, 52(04), 887–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Haas, P. M. (2000). Choosing to comply: Theorizing from international relations and comparative politics. In D. Shelton (Ed.), Commitment and compliance: The role of non-binding norms in the international legal system (pp. 43–64). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Hardin, G. (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science, 162(3859), 1243–1248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jacobs, L. R., & Shapiro, R. Y. (1996). Toward the integrated study of political communications, public opinion, and the policy-making process. PS: Political Science & Politics, 29(1), 10–13.Google Scholar
  25. Johnston, A. I. (2001). Treating international institutions as social environments. International Studies Quarterly, 45(4), 487–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Keohane, R. O. (1993). Institutional theory and the realist challenge after the cold war. In D. A. Baldwin (Ed.), Neorealism and neoliberalism: The contemporary debate (pp. 269–300). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Keohane, R. O., & Martin, L. L. (1995). The promise of institutionalist theory. International Security, 20(1), 39–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kim, H. (2017). Interview by Author. Interview with a Campaigner, the Environmental Justice Foundation on 8 September 2017.Google Scholar
  29. Lee, J. (2014). IUU Sanction legislations and extraterritorial application of domestic law—Recent U.S. and EU legislations and their legal implications. Korean Journal of International Economic Law, 12(3), 27–65.Google Scholar
  30. Lee, S.-J. (2012). South Korea as new middle power seeking complex diplomacy. EAI Asia Security Initiative Working Paper, 25. http://eai.or.kr/data/bbs/eng_report/2012091211454078.pdf. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  31. McCombs, M. E., & Shaw, D. L. (1972). The agenda-setting function of mass media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36(2), 176–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries of Korea. (2013a). Statistics of distant water fishing per species. Toothfish. https://www.fips.go.kr/p/S020404/#. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  33. Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries of Korea. (2013b). Statistics of Total Distant Water Fishing per Year. https://www.fips.go.kr/p/S020403/#. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  34. Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries of Korea. (2014a). Early Opening of the Fisheries Monitoring Center for Overseas Illegal Fishing, Press Release, 27 March 2014. http://www.mof.go.kr/article/view.do?articleKey=1760&boardKey=10&menuKey=376&currentPageNo=1. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  35. Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries of Korea. (2014b). The EU delegation completed its inspection regarding identification of Korea as IUU Fishing Country, Press Release, 11 June 2014. http://www.mof.go.kr/article/view.do?articleKey=1992&boardKey=10&menuKey=376&currentPageNo=1. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  36. Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries of Korea. (2015). The EU finally stops the identification procedure of IUU Fishing Country, Press Release, 23 April 2015. http://www.mof.go.kr/article/view.do?menuKey=376&boardKey=10&articleKey=7719. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  37. Mitchell, R. B. (1994). Regime design matters: Intentional oil pollution and treaty compliance. International Organization, 48(3), 425–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. National Law Information Center of Korea. (2013). Distant Water Fisheries Development Act (Act. no. 11690; Enforcement on 23 March 2013). http://www.law.go.kr/. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  39. National Law Information Center of Korea. (2015). Distant Water Fisheries Development Act (Act. no. 13001; Partially amended; Enforcement on 7 July 2015). http://www.law.go.kr/. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  40. Page, B. I. (1996). The mass media as political actors. PS: Political Science & Politics, 29(1), 20–24.Google Scholar
  41. Park, B. (2013). Korea’s Overseas Fishing Disgraced Itself. Weekly Khan (10 December 2013). http://weekly.khan.co.kr/khnm.html?mode=view&artid=201312021643291&code=114. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  42. Park, J.-H. (2017). Interview by author. Interview with the Korea Program Director of Ocean Outcomes on 17 September 2017.Google Scholar
  43. Raustiala, K., & Slaughter, A.-M. (2002). International law, international relations and compliance. In W. Carlsnaes, T. Risse, & B. Simmons (Eds.), Handbook of international relations (pp. 538–558). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sands, P., & Peel, J. (2012). Principles of international environmental law (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shelton, D. (2000). Introduction: Law, non-law and the problem of ‘soft law’. In D. Shelton (Ed.), Commitment and compliance: The role of non-binding norms in the international legal system (pp. 1–18). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Statistics Korea. (2017). Exportation and importation of total fishery products (2009–2016). http://www.index.go.kr/potal/main/EachDtlPageDetail.do?idx_cd=3052. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  47. US NOAA NMFS. (2013). Improving International Fisheries Management: Report to Congress Pursuant to Section 403(a) of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act of 2006 (January 2013). http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/ia/iuu/msra_page/2013_biennial_report_to_congress__jan_11__2013__final.pdf. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  48. von Stein, J. (2013). The engines of compliance. In J. L. Dunoff & M. A. Pollack (Eds.), Interdisciplinary perspectives on international law and international relations: The state of the art (pp. 477–501). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Weiss, E. B. (2000). Conclusions: Understanding compliance with soft law. In D. Shelton (Ed.), Commitment and compliance: The role of non-binding norms in the international legal system (pp. 535–556). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political Science and International StudiesYonsei UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations