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Do unilateral trade measures really catalyze multilateral environmental agreements?

Original Paper
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Abstract

Unilateralism remains an opaque concept associated with discriminatory or coercive policy implications. Legal controversies about unilateralism have not prevented a continuing proliferation of unilateral trade measures in domestic fishery management regimes to deter illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing. The widespread application of trade leverage requires a refined study of the confluence of multilateral trade and environmental governance frameworks on novel state activism. This article probes the long-running trajectory of the US Tuna and Shrimp disputes within the cross-institutional context of the World Trade Organization, multilateral environmental agreements and regional fisheries management organizations. It aims to shed new light on the nexus between unilateral trade measures and multilateral environmental agreements as an evolving and mutually adaptive process. Inspired is the critical thinking on elevating trade and environmental partnerships to coherently monitor and discipline trade unilateralism in its indirect role to ameliorate global environmental problems.

Keywords

Unilateralism Multilateralism Fisheries management MEAs RFMOs WTO 

Abbreviations

AIDCP

Agreement on the International Dolphin Conservation Program

CCAMLAR

Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources

CCSBT

Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna

CDS

Catch documentation schemes

CITES

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna

CTE

Committee on Trade and Environment

DPCIA

Dolphin Protection Consumer Information Act

EEZ

Exclusive economic zone

EPO

East Pacific Ocean

EU

European Union

FAO

Food and Agricultural Organization

GATT

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

GFCM

General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean

IAC

Inter-American Convention for the Protection and Conservation of Sea Turtles

IATTC

Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission

ICCAT

International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas

IDCPA

International Dolphin Conservation Program Act

IOTC

Indian Ocean Tuna Commission

IPOA-IUU

International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing

MEAs

Multilateral environmental agreements

MMPA

Marine Mammal Protection Act

NAFO

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization

NEAFC

North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission

NOAA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NPFC

North Pacific Fisheries Commission

PSMA

Agreement on Port State Measures

RFMOs

Regional fisheries management organizations

SEAFDEC

Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center

SEAFO

South East Atlantic Fisheries Organisation

SIOFA

Southern Indian Ocean Fisheries Agreement

South-East Asian MOU

Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Marine Turtles and their Habitats of the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia

SPRFMO

South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation

TEDs

Turtle excluder devices

UN

United Nations

UNCLOS

UN Convention on the Law of the Seas

US

United States

UTMs

Unilateral trade measures

WCPFC

Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission

WTO

World Trade Organization

Notes

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Law and Oceans InstituteUniversity of Western Australia (M253)CrawleyAustralia

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