Exploring the agency of global environmental consultancy firms in earth system governance
- 489 Downloads
In contemporary global environmental governance, private companies are both recipients of as well as contributors to the development and spread of environmental practices, norms, standards, and legislation. One sector that seems to be of particular significance is the environmental consultancy industry. It assists public and private actors in developing environmental solutions and ensuring implementation and compliance by providing particular knowledge, management, and assessment skills. However, little attention has been paid to the environmental authority and agency of companies active in this field. This exploratory study on global environmental consultancy firms is guided by the basic research questions on agency in earth system governance: What is agency? How do actors acquire authority and become agents? How can we evaluate the effects these agents generate?
KeywordsAgency Environmental consultancy firms Environmental authority Globalization
Clean development mechanism
Designated operational entity
Environmental consultancy firms
Environment, health, and safety
Environmental impact assessments
Environmental non-governmental organizations
Memorandum of understanding
- Abu-Lughod, J. (1996). Urbanization in the Arab world. In J. Gugler (Ed.), The urban transformation of the developing world (pp. 185–210). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- AEA Web site. http://www.aeat.co.uk.
- AECOM Web site. http://www.aecom.com.
- Aharoni, Y. (1996). The organization of global service MNEs. International Studies of Management & Organization, 26, 6–23.Google Scholar
- Aharoni, Y., & Forsyth, J. D. (Eds.). (1996a). Global strategic alliances among service organizations. Special issue of International Studies of Management and Organization, 26. New York.Google Scholar
- Aharoni, Y., & Forsyth, J. D. (1996b). Preface. International Studies of Management & Organization. Special issue: global strategic alliances among service organizations, 26, 3–5.Google Scholar
- Arcadis (2010). Site evaluation and remediation. Retrieved March 12, 2010, from http://www.arcadis-global.com/Service+Types/Environment/Site+evaluation+and+remediation/.
- Arcadis Web site: http://www.arcadis-global.com.
- Arup (2010a). Arup tackles climate change with the C40. Retrieved June 5, 2010, from http://www.arup.com/Homepage_C40.aspx.
- Arup, (2010b). Melbourne smart city. London, Melbourne: Arup.Google Scholar
- Arup Web site. http://www.arup.com.
- Avant, D. D., Finnemore, M., Sell, S. K., et al. (2010a). Who governs the globe? In D. D. Avant, M. Finnemore, & S. K. Sell (Eds.), Who governs the globe? (pp. 1–31). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Avant, D. D., Finnemore, M., Sell, S. K., et al. (2010b). Conclusion: Authority, legitimacy, and accountability in global politics. In D. D. Avant, M. Finnemore, & S. K. Sell (Eds.), Who governs the globe? (pp. 356–370). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Bäckland, J., & Werr, A. (2001). The construction of global management consulting—a study of consultancies’ web presentations. SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Business Administration No 2001: 3. Retrieved March 17, 2010, from http://swoba.hhs.se/hastba/papers/hastba2001_003.pdf.
- Barton, J. R. (1997). The North-South dimension of the environment and cleaner technology industries. Discussion paper 9803. Maastricht: The United Nations University: Institute for New Technologies. Retrieved March 11, 2010, from http://www.uneptie.org/shared/publications/other/webx0072xpa/manual-cdrom/cplinks/pdfs/9802.pdf.
- Berry, M. A., & Rondinelli, D. A. (1998). Proactive corporate environmental management: A new industrial revolution. The Academy of Management Executive, 12, 38–50.Google Scholar
- Biermann, F., Betsill, M. M., Gupta, J., Kanie, N., Lebel, L., Liverman, D. et al. (2009a) (with contributions from Conca, K., da Costa Ferreira, L., Desai, B., Tay, S., & Zondervan, R.) (2009a). Earth system governance: people, places and the planet. Science and implementation plan of the earth system governance project. Earth System Governance Report 1, IHDP Report 20. Bonn: IHDP.Google Scholar
- Bifani, P. (1996). Services and the environment. A report prepared for the UNCTAD secretariat. UNCTAD/SDD/SER/6. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.Google Scholar
- Birkinshaw, J. (2001). Network relationships inside and outside the firm, and the development of capabilities. In J. Birkinshaw & P. Hagström (Eds.), The flexibility firm. Capability management in network organizations (pp. 4–18). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- C40. 2010. C40 UrbanLife. Retrieved April 21, 2010, from http://www.c40cities.org/initiatives/c40-urban-life.jsp.
- CH2MHill Web site. http://www.ch2m.com.
- Clapp, J. (2005). Transnational corporations and global environmental governance. In P. Dauvergne (Ed.), Handbook of global environmental governance (pp. 284–297). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
- Coen, D. (2004). Environmental and business lobbying alliances in Europe: learning from Washington D.C.? In D. L. Levy & P. J. Newell (Eds.), The business of global environmental governance (pp. 197–219). London: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Earth First! (2002a). BP takes a beating. Action Update, 87. Retrieved March 12, 2010, from http://www.actionupdate.org.uk/back_issues/87/january_a3.pdf.
- Earth First! (2002b). The Baku Ceyhan oil pipeline. Action Update, 87. Retrieved March 12, 2010, from http://www.actionupdate.org.uk/back_issues/87/january_a3.pdf.
- ENDS. (2006). ENDS consultancy market guide. Regeneration spurs growth in environmental consulting. London: ENDS.Google Scholar
- ENDS (2008). ENDS consultancy market guide 2008. Will consultancy’s biggest earner survive the credit crunch? London: ENDS.Google Scholar
- Ergazakis, K., Metaxiotis, K., & Psarras, J. (2006). Knowledge cities: The answer to the needs of knowledge-based development. Vine: The Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, 36, 67–84.Google Scholar
- ERM (2010a). Case study: China petroleum & chemical corporation. Retrieved March 16, 2010, from http://www.erm.com/Analysis-and-Insight/Case-Studies/Case-Study-China-Petroleum-Chemical-Corporation.
- ERM (2010b). Case study: United Nations environment program. Retrieved March 16, 2010, from http://www.erm.com/Analysis-and-Insight/Case-Studies/Case-Study_United_Nations.
- ERM (2010c). Competing in the new economy. Retrieved September 7, 2010, from http://www.erm.com/Analysis-and-Insight/Articles/Competing-in-the-New-Economy/.
- ERM (2010d). The world’s leading global provider of EHS, risk, and social consulting services. Retrieved June 2, 2010, from http://www.erm.com/Global/About%20Us/About_ERM_21jan10.pdf.
- ERM Web site. http://www.erm.com.
- Evers, D.-H., & Menkhoff, T. (2004). Expert knowledge and the role of consultants in an emerging knowledge-based economy. Human Systems Management, 23, 123–135.Google Scholar
- Falkner, R. (2008). Business power and conflict in international environmental politics. Basingstoke, New York: Palgrave MacMillan.Google Scholar
- Ferguson, J. (2006). Global shadows: Africa and the new neoliberal world order. Durham, London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
- Fuchs, D. (2007). Business power in global governance. Boulder, London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
- Grontmij Web site. http://www.grontmij.com.
- Hayter, R., & Le Heron, R. (2002). Industrialization, techno-economic paradigms and the environment. In R. Hayter & R. Le Heron (Eds.), Knowledge, industry and environment. Institutions and innovation in territorial perspective (pp. 11–30). Hants, Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Hodge, G., & Bowman, D. (2006). The ‘consultocracy’: the business of reforming government. In G. Hodge (Ed.), Privatization and market development (pp. 97–126). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
- JEMU (2002). Global environmental markets and the UK environmental industry. Opportunities to 2010. London: Joint Environmental Markets Unit. Department of Trade and Industry.Google Scholar
- Kristensen, P. H., & Zeitlin, J. (2003). The making of the global firm: local pathways to multinational enterprise. In G. Morgan, P. H. Kristensen, & R. Whitley (Eds.), The multinational firm. Organizing across institutional and national divides (pp. 253–282). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Levy, D. L., & Newell, P. J. (2005). Introduction: the business of global environmental governance. In D. L. Levy & P. J. Newell (Eds.), The business of global environmental governance (pp. 1–17). Cambridge, London: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Maunsell Australia (2008). Draft climate change adaptation report. A risk assessment and action plan. Discussion paper. Responding with resilience. Melbourne: Maunsell. Retrieved March 16, 2010, from http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/Environment/WhatCouncilisDoing/Documents/climate_adaptation_draft_2008.pdf.
- McKee, D., McKee, Y., & Garner, D. E. (2005). Multinational consultants as contributors to business education and economic sophistication in emerging markets. In I. Alon & J. R. Mc Intyre (Eds.), Business education in emerging market economies. Perspectives and best practices (pp. 15–26). Norwell, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Miles, I. (2000). Environmental services: sustaining knowledge. In B. Andersen, J. Howells, R. Hull, I. Miles, & J. Roberts (Eds.), Knowledge and innovation in the new service economy (pp. 103–118). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
- Mol, A. P. J. (2008a). Environmental authority: Transformations and relocations in global modernity. Desenvolvimiento e Meio Ambiente, 17, 33–46.Google Scholar
- Morgan, G. (2003). The multinational firm: organizing across institutional and national divides. In G. Morgan, P. H. Kristensen, & R. Whitley (Eds.), The multinational firm. Organizing across institutional and national divides (pp. 1–23). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Morgan, G., Kristensen, P. H., & Whitley, R. (Eds.). (2003). The multinational firm. Organizing across institutional and national divides. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Morgan, G., Sturdy, A., & Quack, S. (2006). The globalization of management consultancy firms: constraints and limitations. CSGR Working paper No 168/05. Retrieved March 8, 2010, from http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/csgr/research/workingpapers/2005/wp16805.pdf.
- Morgera, E. (2004). From Stockholm to Johannesburg: From corporate responsibility to corporate accountability for the global protection of the environment. Reciel, 13, 214–222.Google Scholar
- MWH (2010). Technical assistance to prepare drinking water projects for 8 municipalities in Turkey—CFCU (Central Finance and Contracts Unit) Ankara. Retrieved March 17, 2010, from http://www.mwhglobal.com/MWH/projects/Technical_assistance_to_prepare_Drinking_Water_Pro.html.
- MWH Web site. http://www.mwhglobal.com.
- Newell, P. J. (2005). Business and international environmental governance: the state of the art. In D. L. Levy & P. J. Newell (Eds.), The business of global environmental governance (pp. 21–46). Cambridge, London: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
- OECD (1999). The environmental goods and services industry. Manual for data collection and analysis. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
- OECD (2005). Trade that benefits the environment and development. Opening markets for environmental goods and services. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
- Pacific Environment (2008). Sakhalin controversy prompts NGO to call for ethical code for EIA practitioners. Retrieved March 12, 2010, from http://www.pacificenvironment.org/article.php?id=2848.
- Pattberg, P. (2007). Private institutions and global governance. The new politics of environmental sustainability. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
- Robinson, J. (2006). Ordinary cities. London, New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Royal Haskoning (2010). Technical engineering standards for inland waterway management project, Vietnam. Retrieved March 17, 2010, from http://www.royalhaskoning-hagsc.com/main/people/project2.html.
- Royal Haskoning Web site. http://www.royalhaskoning.com.
- Sam, P. (1999). International environmental consulting practice. How and where to take advantage of global opportunities. New York, Chichester, Weinheim, Brisbane, Singapore, Toronto: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Sassen, S. (2005). The ecology of global economic power: Changing investment practices to promote environmental sustainability. Journal of International Affairs, 58, 11–33.Google Scholar
- Sassen, S. (2009). Cities in today’s global age. The SAIS Review of International Affairs, 29, 3–34.Google Scholar
- Schamp, E. W. (2002). Globalization and the reorganization of a Metropolitan knowledge system: the case of research and development in Frankfurt/Rhein-Main, Germany. In R. Hayter & R. Le Heron (Eds.), Knowledge, industry and environment. Institutions and innovation in territorial perspective (pp. 355–376). Hants, Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Schimming, H., Schulz, C., & Maier, U. (2007). Pilotstudie. Umweltwirtschaft in Luxemburg. Luxembourg: Université du Luxembourg.Google Scholar
- Schulz, C. (2002). Environmental service-providers, knowledge transfer, and the greening of industry. In R. Hayter & R. Le Heron (Eds.), Knowledge, industry and environment. Institutions and innovation in territorial perspective (pp. 209–226). Hants, Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Short, J. R. (2004). Global metropolitan. Globalizing cities in a capitalist world. London, New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Sogreah Web site. http://www.sogreah.fr.
- Stone, G. W. (2000). Eco-orientation: An extension of market orientation in an environmental context. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 8, 21–31.Google Scholar
- Tauw (2010). Policy studies. Retrieved March 17, 2010, from http://www.tauw.com/content.jsp?objectid=10919.
- Tauw Web site. http://www.tauw.com.
- Taylor, P. J. (2001). West Asian/North African cities in the world city network: A global analysis of dependence, integration and autonomy. The Arab World Geographer, 4, 146–159.Google Scholar
- Taylor, P. J. (2004). World city network. A global urban analysis. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Umweltbundesamt, (2006). Wirtschaftsfaktor Umweltschutz: Leitungsfähigkeit der deutschen Umwelt- und Klimaschutzwirtschaft im internationalen Vergleich. Dessau: Umweltbundesamt.Google Scholar
- UNFCCC (2010). Designated operational entities (DOE). Retrieved September 3, 2010, from cdm.unfccc.int/DOE.index.html.Google Scholar
- URS Web site. http://www.urscorp.com.
- Vikhlyaev, A. (2003). Environmental goods and services: Defining negotiations or negotiating definitions? UNCTAD Trade and Environment Review, 33–60. Retrieved March 17, 2010, from http://r0.unctad.org/trade_env/test1/publications/TER2003eversion/Lead2.htm.