The Amaraughaprabodha: New Evidence on the Manuscript Transmission of an Early Work on Haṭha- and Rājayoga

Abstract

The Amaraughaprabodha is a Sanskrit Śaiva yoga text attributed by its colophons to Gorakṣanātha. It was first published by Kalyani Devi Mallik in 1954 and has been discussed in various secondary sources. Most notably, Christian Bouy (1994, pp. 18–19) identified this work as a source text for the Haṭhapradīpikā of Svātmārāma (mid-fifteenth century). This article presents new manuscript evidence for a shorter recension of the Amaraughaprabodha than the one published by Mallik. Comparing the differences between the short and long recensions reveals that the structure of the shorter one is more cohesive and closer to the original design of the work. The close relationship of the Amaraughaprabodha's short recension with an eleventh-century Vajrayāna work on yoga called the Amṛtasiddhi provides unique insights into how early teachings on Haṭhayoga were formulated. Although the practice of the physical techniques is largely the same in both texts, the author of the Amaraughaprabodha removed or obscured Vajrayāna terminology, added Śaiva metaphysics and framed Haṭhayoga as subordinate to a Śaiva yoga known as Rājayoga. This article proposes that the Amaraughaprabodha's short recension is probably the earliest known work to combine Haṭha- with Rājayoga, on the basis of this recension’s close relationship with the Amṛtasiddhi, its rudimentary nature and the likelihood that Svātmārāma used it, and not the long recension, for composing the Haṭhapradīpikā.

References

Primary Sources

  1. Amanaska

  2. The Amanaska: king of all Yogas. A critical edition and annotated translation with a monographic introduction. Jason Birch. DPhil dissertation, University of Oxford Library, Oxford, 2013.

  3. Amaraughaprabodha

  4. G1Amaraughaprabodha. Ms. No. 1448. Government Oriental Manuscript Library, Madras (Chennai).

  5. G2Amaraughaprabodha. Ms. No. 4340. Government Oriental Manuscript Library, Madras (Chennai).

  6. B – Amaraughaprabodha. Ms. No. 7970. Maharaja Sayajirao Oriental Institute, Central Library, Baroda (Vadodara).

  7. A1Amaraughaprabodha. Ms. No. 70528. Adyar Library and Research Centre, Chennai.

  8. A2Amaraughaprabodha. Ms. No. 75278. Adyar Library and Research Centre, Chennai.

  9. T – Amaraughaprabodha. Ms. No. 179(a) [Serial number 412]. Venkaṭeśvara Oriental Institute, Tirupati.

  10. Amṛtasiddhi

  11. Amṛtasiddhi, (unpublished) critical edition, ed. James Mallinson and Péter-Dániel Szántó. The Hatha Yoga Project, forthcoming.

  12. Dattātreyayogaśāstra

  13. Dattātreyayogaśāstra. (unpublished) critical edition, ed. James Mallinson (compiled with assistance from Alexis Sanderson, Jason Birch, Péter Szántó, and Andrea Acri). The Hatha Yoga Project, forthcoming.

  14. Gorakṣaśataka

  15. Gorakṣaśataka. Ms. No. R 7874 (IFP transcript T1095). A transcript of Ms. No. 2831(p). Government Oriental Manuscript Library, Madras (Chennai).

  16. Gorakṣaśataka. Ms. No. B6389 (Call No. 6717) Thanjavur Maharaja Serfoji’s Sarasvati Mahal Library and Research Centre, Thanjavur.

  17. Gheraṇḍasaṃhitā

  18. The Gheraṇḍa Saṃhitā: The original Sanskrit and an English translation. Mallinson, J. Woodstock: YogaVidya.com, 2004.

  19. Gorakh Bāṇī

  20. Gorakha–bānī, ed. Ḍoktar Pītāmbaradatta Baḍathvāla. Prayāga: Hindī Sāhitya-sammelana. 2nd edition 2003 (vi) [= 1946 CE]

  21. Haṭhapradīpikā

  22. Haṭhapradīpikā, manuscript no. 30109. Sampūrṇānanda Library, Varanasi.

  23. Haṭhapradīpikā of Svātmārāma, ed. Swami Digambaraji and Pt. Raghunatha Shastri Kokaje. Lonavla: Kaivalyadhama S. M. Y. M. Samiti, 1998.

  24. Haṭhapradīpikā of Svātmārāma with the Commentary Jyotsnā Brahmānanda, ed. K. Kunjunni Raja. Madras: Adyar Library and Research Centre, 1972 (Verse numbers are cited from this edition).

  25. Haṭhapradīpikā (with 10 chapters) of Svātmārāma: with Yogaprakāśikā, a commentary by Bālakṛṣṇa, ed. Gharote, M.L. and Devnath, P. Lonavla: Lonavla Yoga Institute, 2006.

  26. Haṭhasaṅketacandrikā (of Sundaradeva)

  27. Haṭhasaṅketacandrikā, ms. No. 2244 at the Man Singh Pustak Prakash Library, Jodhpur.

  28. Jyotsnā (of Brahmānanda)

  29. Brahmānandakṛtā Haṭhapradīpikā Jyotsnā, ed. Maheśānand, Śarmā, Sahāy and Bodhe. Lonavla: Kaivalyadham Śrīmanmādhav Yogamandir Samiti, 2002.

  30. Kubjikāmatatantra

  31. The Kubjikāmatatantra: Kulālikāmnāya version, ed. Goudriaan, T. and Schoterman, J.A. Leiden: E.J.Brill, 1988.

  32. Kuñcitāṅghristava

  33. See Smith 1996

  34. Pātañjalayogaśāstra

  35. Pātañjalayogasūtrāṇi vācaspatimiśraviracitaṭīkāsaṃvalitavyāsabhāṣyasametāni tathā bhojadevaviracitarājamārtaṇḍābhidhavṛttisametāni, Ānandāśramasaṃ skṛtagranthāvaliḥ, 47. ed. Kāśīnātha Śāstrī Āgāśe, Hari Nārāyaṇa Āpaṭe, Pune: Ānandāśramamudraṇālaya, 1904.

  36. Netratantra

  37. Netratantra with the commentary (Netroddyota) of Rājānaka Kṣemarāja, ed. Madhusūdan Kaul Sāstrī. KSTS 46, 59. Bombay, 1926 and 1939.

  38. Niśvāsaguhya

  39. The Niśvāsatattvasaṃhitā: The earliest surviving Śaiva tantra. Dominic Goodall. Pondicherry: Institut Français de Pondichéry.

  40. Sārdhatriśatikālottara

  41. Sārdhatriśatikālottaravṛtti of Bhaṭṭa Rāmakaṇṭha, ed. N.R. Bhatt: Sārdhatriśatikālottarāgama avec le commentaire de Bhaṭṭa Rāmakaṇṭha: édition critique. Publications de l’IFI, No. 61. Pondicherry: IFI, 1979.

  42. Śārṅgadharapaddhati

  43. Śārṅgadharapaddhati, ed. Peter Peterson. Delhi: Caukhambā Saṃskṛta Pratiṣṭhāna, 1987.

  44. Saubhāgyalakṣṃyupaniṣat

  45. See Yoga Upaniṣads

  46. Śivasaṃhitā

  47. The Śiva Saṃhitā: A critical edition and an english translation. Mallinson, J. Woodstock: YogaVidya.com, 2007.

  48. Svacchandatantra

  49. Svacchandatantra with the commentary (Svacchandoddyota) of Rājānaka Kṣemarāja, ed. Madhusūdan Kaul Śāstrī. KSTS 31, 38, 44, 48, 51, 53, 56. Bombay, 1921–1935.

  50. Tantrasadbhāva

  51. Tantrasadbhāva (Partially and Provisionally edited etext by Mark Dyczkowski). Etext of the Digital Library of Muktabodha (http://muktabodha.org).

  52. Upāsanāsārasaṅgraha

  53. Upāsanāsārasaṅgraha, Institut Français de Pondichéry Transcript No. T1095b [R 2831(i)], pp. 15-63.

  54. Varāhopaniṣat

  55. See Yoga Upaniṣads

  56. Vasiṣṭhasaṃhitā

  57. Vasiṣṭha Saṃhitā (Yoga Kāṇḍa), revised edition, ed. Philosophico-Literary Research Department. Lonavla: Kaivalyadhama S.M.Y.M. Samiti, 2005.

  58. Vivekamārtaṇḍa

  59. Vivekamārtaṇḍa. Ms. No. 4110. Maharaja Sayajirao Oriental Institute, Central Library, Baroda (Vadodara).

  60. Yogabīja

  61. Yogabīja of Gorakhanātha, ed. Ramalala Srivastava. Gorakhapur: Gorakhanath Mandir, 1982.

  62. Yogacintāmaṇi (of Śivānandasarasvatī)

  63. Yogacintāmaṇi, ed. Haridāsa Śarma. Calcutta: Calcutta Oriental Press (no date).

  64. Yogaprakāśikā

  65. See Haṭhapradīpikā (with 10 chapters) 2006

  66. Yogasārasaṅgraha

  67. Yogasārasaṅgraha. Institut Français de Pondichéry Transcript No. T0859.

  68. Yogasiddhāntacandrikā

  69. Pātañjalayogasūtravyākhyā paramahaṃsaparivrājakācāryaśrīnārāyaṇatīrthaviracitā yogasiddhāntacandrikā, ed. Dr. Vimalā Karnāṭak. Chowkhambā Sanskrit Series Office (No 108).Varanasi: Benares Hindu University, 2000.

  70. Yogatārāvalī

  71. Yogatārāvalī, (unpublished) critical edition, ed. Jason Birch. The Hatha Yoga Project, forthcoming.

  72. Yoga Upaniṣads

  73. Yoga Upaniṣads with the Commentary of Śrī Upaniṣadbrahmayogin, ed. Pandit A. Mahadeva Sastri. Madras: Adyar Library and Research Centre, 1968.


  74. Yogavārttika (of Vijñānabhikṣu)

  75. Yogavārttika of Vijñānabhikṣu, ed. and trans. Rukmani, T.S., vol. 1-4. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 2007.

  76. Yogayājñavalkya

  77. Yogayājñavalkya, ed. Sri Prahlad C Divanji. B. B. R. A. Society’s Monograph, no. 3. Bombay: Bombay Branch Royal Asiatic Society, 1954.


  78. Yuktabhavadeva

  79. Yuktabhavadeva of Bhavadeva Miśra, ed. Gharote, M. L. and Jha, V. K. Lonavla: Lonavla Yoga Institute, 2002.

Secondary Sources

  1. Banerjea, A. K. (1962). Philosophy of Gorakhnath: with Goraksha-vacana-sangraha. Gorakhpur: Mahant Dig Vijai Nath Trust.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Birch, J. (2011). The meaning of Haṭha in early Haṭhayoga. JOAS, 131(4), 527–554.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Birch, J. (2014). Rājayoga: The reincarnations of the king of all Yogas. International Journal of Hindu Studies, 17(3), 401–444.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Birch, J. (2018). The proliferation of Āsanas in Late Medieval Yoga Texts. In Yoga in transformation: Historical and contemporary perspectives on a global phenomenon (pp. 101–179). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht Unipress.

  5. Birch, J. (2019 Forthcoming). The quest for liberation-in-life in early Haṭha and Rājayoga” in Religious Practice. Oxford: The [Oxford] History of Hinduism, Oxford University Press.

  6. Bouy, C. (1994). Les Nātha-Yogin et Les Upaniṣads. Paris: Diffusion De Boccard.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Briggs, W. (1938). Gorakhnāth and the Kānpaṭa Yogis. Calcutta: Y.M.C.A. Publishing House.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Dasgupta, S. (1946). Obscure religious cults as background of Bengali literature. Calcutta: University of Calcutta.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Dvivedī, H. (1950). Nāth Sampradāy. Ilāhābād: Hindustānī Ekedemī.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Gonda, J. (1977). Medieval religious literature in Sanskrit (Vol. 2). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Goodall, D. (2004). The Parākhyatantra; a scripture of the Śaiva Siddhānta. Pondicherry: Institut Français de Pondichéry: École Française D’ Extreme-Orient.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Hatley, S. (forthcoming). Kuṇḍalinī. In: Sharma, A. (ed) Encyclopedia of Indian religions. New York: Springer

  13. Hellwig, O. (2009). Wörterbuch der mittelalterlichen indischen Alchemie. Eelde, the Netherlands: Barkhuis.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  14. Kaivalyadhama Yoga Institute. (2005). Descriptive catalogue of yoga manuscripts (revised ed.). Lonavla, India: Kaivalyadhama S.M.Y.M. Samiti.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Mallik, K. (1954). Siddha-Siddhānta-Paddhati and other works of the Nātha Yogīs. Pune: Poona Oriental Book House.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Mallinson, J. (2007). The Khecarīvidyā of Ādinātha: A critical edition and annotated translation of an early text of Haṭhayoga. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Mallinson, J. (2011). Haṭha Yoga. In The Brill encyclopedia of Hinduism (Vol. 3, pp. 770–781). Leiden: Brill.

  18. Mallinson, J. (2014). Haṭhayogas philosophy: A fortuitous union of non-dualities. Journal of Indian Philosophy, 42(1), 225–247. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10781-013-9217-0.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Mallinson, J. (2016). Śāktism and Haṭhayoga. In Olesen, B. W. (Ed.) Goddess traditions in tantric Hinduism, history, practice and doctrine (pp. 109–140). Oxford: Routledge.

  20. Mallinson, J. (2016b). The Amṛtasiddhi: Haṭhayoga’s tantric Buddhist source text (draft July 3, 2016) Alexis Sanderson’s Festschrift, forthcoming. https://www.academia.edu/26700528/The_Amṛtasiddhi_ Haṭhayogas_Tantric_Buddhist_Source_Text. Accessed 20 November 2018.

  21. New Catalogus Catalogorum (NCC). (1949). New catalogus catalogorum: An alphabetical register of Sanskrit and allied works and authors, vol. 1. Raghavan, V., Kunjunni, R. K., Veezhinathan, N., Ramabai, E. R., Dash, S., & Aufrecht, T. Madras: University of Madras.

  22. Raṅgācarya, A., & Bahudur, R. (1910). A descriptive catalogue of Sanskrit manuscripts in the Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, Madras (Vol. 9). Madras: Superintendent Government Press.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Sanderson, A. (2001). ‘History through textual criticism in the study of Śaivism, the Pañcarātra and the Buddhist Yoginītantras. In F. Grimal (Ed.), Les Sources et le temps. Sources and time: A colloquium, Pondicherry, 11-13 January 1997 (pp. 1–47). Pondicherry: Institut Français de Pondichéry École Française d’Extrême-Orient.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Sanderson, A. (2003). Śaiva religion among the Khmers, Part 1. Bulletin de l’École française d’Extrême-Orient, 90–91, 349–462.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Schaeffer, K. R. (2002). Thee attainment of immortality: From Nāthas in India to Buddhists in Tibet. Journal of Indian Philosophy, 30, 6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Sferra, F. (2000). The Sadangayoga by Anupamaraksita: With Ravisrijñanas Gunabharaninamasadangayogatippani: Text and annotated translation. Roma: Istituto italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Smith, D. (1996). The dance of Śiva: Religion, art and poetry in South Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Sri Venkatesvara University and Sastri, S. N. (1956). An alphabetical index of Sanskrit, Telugu & Tamil manuscripts, palm-leaf and paper, in the Sri Venkateswara Oriental Research Institute Library, Tirupati = [Śrīveṅkaṭeśvaraprācya-pariśodhanālayabhāṇḍāgārīyalikhitagranthasūcī]. Ed. N. Subramania Sastri. Tirupati: Sri Venkateswara Oriental Research Institute.

  29. Szántó, P.-D. (2016). A brief introduction to the Amṛtasiddhi (Handout for a talk presented at the Hatha Yoga Project’s Workshop, SOAS University of London). https://www.academia.edu/28522189/ _A_Brief_Introduction_to_the_Amṛtasiddhi_Handout_for_Sanskrit_Texts_on_Yoga_London_Oxford_ 2016_. Accessed 9 February 2017.

  30. Tāntrikābhidhanākośa. (2000). Tāntrikābhidhānakośa. I dictionnaire des termes techniques de la littérature hindoue tantrique = Wörterbuch zur Terminologie hinduistischer Tantren. Ed. Dominic Goodall; Hélène Brunner-Lachaux; et al.

  31. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. (2013). Tāntrikābhidhanākośa III: Dictionnaire des termes techniques de la. eds Goodall, Dominic and Rastelli, Marion. Austria: Austrian Academy of Science.

  32. Vasudeva, S. (2004). The Yoga of the Mālinīvijayottaratantra: Chapters 1–4, 7–11, 11–17, critical edition, translation and notes. Pondicherry: École française d’Extrême-Orient.

    Google Scholar 

  33. White, D. G. (1996). The alchemical body. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank (in alphabetical order) Jacqueline Hargreaves, James Mallinson and Mark Singleton for their incisive comments on earlier drafts of this article. Also, lengthy private discussions that I have had with Dominic Goodall, James Mallinson and Somadeva Vasudeva have greatly helped me to understand the content of the Amaraughaprabodha and the differences between its two recensions. Reading both recensions at a Haṭha Yoga Project workshop (15–18.1.2018) at the École française d’Extrême-Orient in Pondicherry with Christèle Barois, Alberta Ferrario, Dominic Goodall, Viswanatha Gupta, Jacqueline Hargreaves, Shaman Hatley, Nirajan Kafle, Murali Krishnan, James Mallinson, SAS Sarma, Mark Singleton and Somdev Vasudeva deepened my understanding of the text and enabled me to solve many problems in my critical editions and translations of both recensions. Also, thanks to James Mallinson and Péter-Dániel Szántó for sharing with me a draft of their critical edition of the Amṛtasiddhi. My work on this article has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant Agreement No. 647963). My critical edition and translation of the Amaraughaprabodha will be published as one of the outputs of the Haṭha Yoga Project in 2020.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jason Birch.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Appendix

Appendix

Twelve of beta’s variant readings and six of theta’s (in red) match those of the Haṭhapradīpikā.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Birch, J. The Amaraughaprabodha: New Evidence on the Manuscript Transmission of an Early Work on Haṭha- and Rājayoga. J Indian Philos 47, 947–977 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10781-019-09401-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Yoga
  • South Asia
  • Indology
  • Manuscripts
  • Hatha
  • Raja
  • Vajrayana
  • Hinduism
  • Buddhism