Journal of Indian Philosophy

, Volume 42, Issue 1, pp 225–247 | Cite as

Haṭhayoga’s Philosophy: A Fortuitous Union of Non-Dualities

Article

Abstract

In its classical formulation as found in Svātmārāma’s Haṭhapradīpikā, haṭhayoga is a Śaiva appropriation of an older extra-Vedic soteriological method. But this appropriation was not accompanied by an imposition of Śaiva philosophy. In general, the texts of haṭhayoga reveal, if not a disdain for, at least an insouciance towards metaphysics. Yoga is a soteriology that works regardless of the yogin’s philosophy. But the various texts that were used to compile the Haṭhapradīpikā (a table identifying these borrowings is given at the end of the article) were not composed in metaphysical vacua. Analysis of their allusions to doctrine shows that the texts from which Svātmārāma borrowed most were products of a Vedantic milieu—bearing testament to Vedānta’s newfound interest in yoga as a complement to jñāna—but that many others were Śaiva non-dual works. Because of the lack of importance given to the niceties of philosophy in haṭhayogic works, these two non-dualities were able to combine happily and thus the Śaiva tenets incorporated within haṭhayoga survived the demise of Śaivism as part of what was to become in the medieval period the dominant soteriological method in scholarly religious discourse in India.

Keywords

Yoga Haṭha Haṭhapradīpikā Śaivism Vedānta 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aparokṣānubhūti, Vidyāraṇyakṛtayā Aparokṣadīpikākhyaṭīkayā saṃvalitā, ed. Kamla Devi. Akṣayavaṭa Prakāśana, 1988.Google Scholar
  2. Amanaska see Birch (2013)Google Scholar
  3. Amaraughaprabodha, of Gorakṣanātha, ed. K.Mallik in Mallik 1954.Google Scholar
  4. Amaraughaśāsana, of Gorakṣanātha, ed. Pt. Mukund Rām Śāstrī. Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies 20. Srinagar, 1918.Google Scholar
  5. Amṛtasiddhi of Virūpākṣanātha. Maharaja Mansingh Pustak Prakash, Jodhpur, Acc. No. 1242.Google Scholar
  6. Alakhbānī or Rushdnāmā of Shaikh Abd-ul-Quddus Gangohi, ed. Saiyid Athar Abbas Rizvi and Shailesh Zaidi. Aligarh: Bharat Prakashan Mandir, 1971.Google Scholar
  7. Ahirbudhnyāsaṃhitā, ed. M. D. Ramanujacharya under the supervision of F. Otto Schrader; revised by V. Krishnamacharya. Madras: Adyar Library and Research Centre, 1966.Google Scholar
  8. Āryamañjuśrīnāmasaṃgīti with Amṛtakaṇikā-ṭippanī by Bhikṣu Raviśrījñāna and Amṛtakaṇikodyota-nibandha of Vibhūticandra, ed. B. Lal. Sarnath: Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, 1994.Google Scholar
  9. Uttaragītā, ed. S. V. Oka. Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute Post-Graduate and Research Department Series No. 3. Poona: Bhandarkar Institute Press, 1957.Google Scholar
  10. Kavitāvalī of Tulsīdās, in Śukla, Rāmcandra; Bhagvān Dīn; and Brajratna Dās, eds. 1973 (2030 VS)–1974 (2031 VS). Tulsī Granthāvalī, vols. 1–2. Benares: Nāgrī Pracāriṇī Sabhā.Google Scholar
  11. Kubjikāmatatantra, Kulālikāmnāya version, ed. T. Goudriaan and J.A. Schoterman. Leiden: E.J.Brill, 1988.Google Scholar
  12. Kaulajñānanirṇaya of Matsyendranātha, ed. Prabodh Candra Bagchi in Kaulajñānanirṇaya and Some Minor Texts of the School of Matsyendranātha. Calcutta Sanskrit Series, No. 3. Calcutta: Metropolitan, 1934.Google Scholar
  13. Khecarīvidyā, ed. James Mallinson. The Khecarīvidyā of Ādinātha. A critical edition and annotated translation of an early text of haṭhayoga. London: Routledge, 2007.Google Scholar
  14. Gorakṣaśataka. Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, Madras, MS No. R 7874. See also Mallinson (2011b).Google Scholar
  15. Gorakṣasaṃhitā, ed. Janārdana Śāstrī Pāṇḍeya. Sarasvatībhavanagranthamālā Vol. 111. Varanasi: Sampūrṇānandasaṃskṛtaviśvavidyālaye, 2006.Google Scholar
  16. Gorakhbāṇī, ed. P. D. Baḍathvāl. Prayāg: Hindī Sāhity Sammelan, 1960.Google Scholar
  17. Candrāvalokana. Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, Madras, MS No. D 4345. (I thank Dominic Goodall and Whitney Cox for their help in transcribing this manuscript.)Google Scholar
  18. Jīvanmuktiviveka. See Goodding 2002.Google Scholar
  19. (Śrī)-Jñāneśvarī of Jñānadeva, ed. G.S. Naṇadīkar. 5 vols. Mumbai: Prakāś Gopāl Naṇadīkar, 2001.Google Scholar
  20. Dattātreyayogaśāstra. Unpublished edition by James Mallinson based on Dattātreyayogaśāstra, ed. Brahmamitra Avasthī, Svāmī Keśavānanda Yoga Saṃsthāna 1982 (B); Man Singh Pustak Prakash Nos.1936 (J1); Wai Prajñā Pāṭhaśālā 6/4-399 (W1), 6163 (W2); Baroda Oriental Institute 4107 (V); Mysore Government Oriental Manuscripts Library 4369 (M); Thanjavur Palace Library B6390 (T). (This edition was read with Professor Alexis Sanderson, Jason Birch, Péter Szantó and Andrea Acri in Oxford in early 2012, all of whom I thank for their valuable emendations and suggestions.)Google Scholar
  21. Niśvāsatattvasaṃhitā. Unpublished critical edition by Dominic Goodall in collaboration with Alexis Sanderson and Harunaga Isaacson. Google Scholar
  22. Netratantra with commentary (Uddyota) by Kṣemarāja, ed. Madhusūdan Kaul Śāstrī. Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies 46. Srinagar, 1926.Google Scholar
  23. Pādmasaṃhitā, ed. S. Padmanabhan and R. N. Sampath. Madras: Pancaratra Parisodhana Parisad, 1974.Google Scholar
  24. Bhāgavatapurāṇam, ed. Vasudeva Śarman. Bombay: Nirnaya Sagar, 1905.Google Scholar
  25. Matsyendrasaṃhitā. See Kiss (2009).Google Scholar
  26. Mārkaṇḍeyapurāṇa, ed. K. M. Banerjea. Calcutta: Bishop’s College Press, 1862.Google Scholar
  27. Laghuyogavāsiṣṭha, ed. Vasudeva Sharma Panasikara. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1985.Google Scholar
  28. Līḷācaritra of Mhāibhaṭa, ed. V. B. Kolte. Muṃbaī: Mahārāṣṭra Rājya Sāhitya Saṃskṛti Maṃḍala, 1978.Google Scholar
  29. Ragales of Harihara. Mahākavi Hampeya Hariharadevakṛta Nūtana Purātanara Ragalegalu, ed. M.S.Sunkapura. Dharwar: Kannada Adhyayana Pitha, Karnataka University, 1976.Google Scholar
  30. Yogabīja, ed. Rām Lāl Śrīvāstav. Gorakhpur: Śrī Gorakhnāth Mandir, 1982.Google Scholar
  31. Yogayājñavalkya, ed. P. C. Divanji. Bombay: Royal Asiatic Society, 1954.Google Scholar
  32. Vasiṣṭhasaṃhitā (Yogakāṇḍa), eds. Swami Digambarji, Pitambar Jha, Gyan Shankar Sahay (first edition); Swami Maheshananda, B. R. Sharma, G. S. Sahay, R. K. Bodhe (revised edition). Lonāvalā: Kaivalyadhām Śrīmanmādhav Yogamandir Samiti, 2005.Google Scholar
  33. Vimānārcanākalpa, ed. Śrīsvāmīhāthīrāmjī. Madras: Venkateshwar Press, 1926.Google Scholar
  34. Vivekamārtaṇḍa of Gorakṣadeva. Oriental Institute of Baroda Library. Acc. No. 4110.Google Scholar
  35. Śāradātilakam of Lakṣmaṇadeśikendra, paṭala 25, ed. G. Bühnemann. See Bühnemann (2011).Google Scholar
  36. Śārṅgadharapaddhati, ed. Peter Peterson. Bombay: Government Central Book Depot, 1888.Google Scholar
  37. Śivasaṃhitā, ed. and tr. J. Mallinson. New York: YogaVidya.com, 2007.Google Scholar
  38. Śivasūtra with the commentary (vimarśinī) of Rājānaka Kṣemarāja, ed. J. C. Chatterji. Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies 1. Shrinagar, 1911.Google Scholar
  39. Śūnyasaṃpādane, eds. S. C. Nandimath, L. M. A. Menezes, R. C. Hiremath, M. S. Sunkapur. 5 Vols. Dharwar: Karnatak University, 1965–1972.Google Scholar
  40. Siddhasiddhāntapaddhati of Gorakṣanātha, ed. M. L. Gharote and G. K. Pai. Lonavla: Lonavla Yoga Institute, 2005.Google Scholar
  41. Skandapurāṇa, ed. Kṛṣṇaprasāda Bhaṭṭarāī (Skandapurāṇasya Ambikākhaṇḍaḥ). Kathmandu: Mahendrasaṃskrṭaviśvavidyālayaḥ, 1988.Google Scholar
  42. Haṭhapradīpikā of Svātmārāma, eds. Svāmī Digambarjī and Dr Pītambar Jhā. Lonavla: Kaivalyadhām S.M.Y.M.Samiti, 1970.Google Scholar
  43. Banerjea, A. K. (1983). Philosophy of Gorakhnath with Goraksha-Vacana-Sangraha. England: Combe Springs Press.Google Scholar
  44. Birch, J. (2013). The Amanaska. King of All Yogas. A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation with a Monographic Introduction. Thesis successfully submitted for degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of Oxford. Google Scholar
  45. Bouy, C. (1994). Les Nātha-Yogin et les Upaniṣads. Paris: Diffusion de Boccard.Google Scholar
  46. Briggs, G. W. (1989 [1938]). Gorakhnāth and the Kānphaṭa Yogīs. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.Google Scholar
  47. Bühler, G. (1892). The Cintra Praśasti of the reign of Sarangadeva. Epigraphia Indica, 1, 271–287.Google Scholar
  48. Bühnemann, G. (2001). The Śāradātilakatantra on yoga: A new edition and translation of chapter 25. Bulletin of SOAS, 74(2), 205?235.Google Scholar
  49. Colas, G. (1988). Le yoga de l’officiant Vaikhanasa. Journal Asiatique, 276(3–4), 245–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Colas, G. (2010). Vaiṣṇava Saṃhitās. Brill Encyclopedia of Hinduism, 2, 153–167.Google Scholar
  51. Digby, S. (1970). Encounters with Jogīs in Indian Ṣūfī hagiography. Unpublished paper presented at a seminar on Aspects of Religion in South Asia at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.Google Scholar
  52. Eliade, M. (1973 [1954]). Yoga: Immortality and freedom. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Ernst, C. W. (2003). The Islamization of Yoga in the Amrtakunda Translations. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Series 3, 13(2), 1–23.Google Scholar
  54. Ernst, C. W. (2007). Accounts of yogis in Arabic and Persian historical and travel texts. Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, 33, 409–426.Google Scholar
  55. Franco, E. (2009). Introduction. In E. Franco in collaboration with D. Einer (Eds.), Yogic perception, meditation and altered states of consciousness (pp. 1–51). Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.Google Scholar
  56. Goodall, D. (2004). The Parākhyatantra. A scripture of the Śaiva Siddhānta. A critical edition and annotated translation. Pondicherry: Publications de l’Institut français d’Indologie No. 98.Google Scholar
  57. Goodding, R. (2002). The treatise on liberation-in-life, critical edition and annotated translation of the Jīvanmuktiviveka of Vidyāraṇya. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Texas.Google Scholar
  58. Halbfass, W. (1988). India and Europe. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  59. Heilijgers-Seelen, D. (1994). The system of five Cakras in Kubjikāmatatantra 14–16. Groningen: Egbert Forsten.Google Scholar
  60. Hori, S. (2005). Additional notes on the unidentified Sanskrit fragments in the Ōtani collection at Ryūkoku University Library. Journal of the International College for Postgraduate Buddhist Studies, 9, 91–97.Google Scholar
  61. Kiehnle, C. (1997). Songs on Yoga; Texts and Teachings of the Mahārāṣṭrian Nāths. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.Google Scholar
  62. Kiehnle, C. (2005). The Secret of the Nāths: The Ascent of Kuṇḍalinī according to Jñāneśvarī 6.151-328. Bulletin des Études Indiennes, 22–23, 447–494.Google Scholar
  63. Kiss, C. (2009). Matsyendranātha’s Compendium (Matsyendrasaṃhitā). A critical edition and annotated translation of Matsyendrasaṃhitā 1–13 and 55 with analysis. Unpublished DPhil. Thesis submitted to Oxford University.Google Scholar
  64. Kiss, C. (2011). The Matsyendrasaṃhitā: A Yoginī-centred thirteenth-century Yoga text of the South Indian Śāmbhava Cult. In D. N. Lorenzen and A. Muñoz (Eds.), Yogi Heroes and Poets: Histories and Legends of the Nāths (pp. 143–162). New York: SUNY.Google Scholar
  65. Lévi, S. (1905). Le Népal: Étude Historique d’un Royaume Hindou (Vol. 1). Paris: Ernest Leroux.Google Scholar
  66. Locke, J. K. (1980). Karunamaya. The Cult of Avalokitesvara-Matsyendranath in the Valley of Nepal. Kathmandu: Sahayogi Prakashan.Google Scholar
  67. Mallik, K. (1954). The Siddha Siddhānta Paddhati and other works of Nath Yogis. Poona: Poona Oriental Book House.Google Scholar
  68. Mallinson, J. (2007). The Khecarīvidyā of Ādinātha. A critical edition and annotated translation of an early text of haṭhayoga. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  69. Mallinson, J. (2011a). Nāth Saṃpradāya. In K. A. Jacobsen (Ed.), Brill Encyclopedia of Hinduism (Vol. 3, pp. 407–428). Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  70. Mallinson, J. (2011b). The original Gorakṣaśataka. In D. G. White (Ed.), Yoga in practice (pp. 257–272). Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Michaels, A. (1985). On 12th–13th century relations between Nepal and South India. Journal of the Nepal Research Centre, VII, 69–73.Google Scholar
  72. Narharināth, Y. (1953). Kāṣṭhamaṇḍapa. Saṃskṛta-sandeśa, 1(6), 4–10.Google Scholar
  73. Ratié, I. (2011). Le Soi et L’Autre. Leiden: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rizvi, S. A. A. (1971). See Alakhbānī.Google Scholar
  75. Sakaki, K. (2005). Yogico-tantric Traditions in the Ḥawd al-Ḥayāt. Journal of the Japanese Association for South Asian Studies, 7, 135–156.Google Scholar
  76. Saletore, B. A. (1937). The Kānaphāṭa Jogis in Southern History. The Poona Orientalist, 1, 16–22.Google Scholar
  77. Sanderson, A. (2007). Atharvavedins in Tantric Territory: The Aṅgirasakalpa Texts of the Oriya Paippalādins and their Connection with the Trika and the Kālīkula, with critical editions of the Parājapavidhi, the Parāmantravidhi, and the Bhadrakālāmantravidhiprakaraṇa. In A. Griffiths & A. Schmiedchen (Eds.), The Atharvaveda and its Paippalāda Śakhā: Historical and philological papers on a Vedic Tradition (pp. 195–311). Aachen: Shaker Verlag.Google Scholar
  78. Sanderson, A. (2011). Śaivism, Society and the State. Unpublished Paper.Google Scholar
  79. Slusser, M., & Vajracarya, D. (2005). Two Medieval Nepalese buildings: An architectural and cultural study. In M. S. Slusser with contributions by G. V. Vajracharya & M. Fuller (Eds.), Art and culture of Nepal: Selected papers (pp. 429–503). Kathmandu: Mandala Publications. [This article first appeared in Artibus Asiae, 36(3), 169–218 (1974).]Google Scholar
  80. Stearns, C. (1996). The Life and Tibetan Legacy of the Indian Mahāpaṇḍita Vibhūticandra. The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, 19(1), 127–171.Google Scholar
  81. Tamot, K. (2009). ‘Devo Gorakṣo’ is not there. Blog post from http://www.nepalmandal.org/archive/200901.
  82. Tulpule, S. G. (1979). Classical Marāṭhī Literature. A history of Indian Literature (Vol. IX, fasc. 4). Wiesbaden: Otto Harrowitz.Google Scholar
  83. Vajrācārya, D. (1975). Śaktiśālī Bhadra Rāmavarddhanaru rā tatkālika Nepāl. 12–36 in Pūrṇimā 7 (vikram samvat 2022 Kārttik).Google Scholar
  84. Vasudeva, S. (2004). The Yoga of the Mālinīvijayottaratantra. Pondicherry: Publications de l’Institut français d’Indologie No. 97.Google Scholar
  85. Vaudeville, C. (1987). The Shaiva–Vaishnava synthesis in Maharashtrian Santism. In K. Schomer & W.H. McLeod (Eds.), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India (pp. 215–228). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.Google Scholar
  86. Watson, A. (2010). Rāmakaṇṭha’s concept of unchanging cognition (nityajñāna): Influence from Buddhism, Sāṃkhya and Vedānta. In J. Bronkhorst & K. Preisendanz (Eds.), From Vasubandhu to Caitanya: Studies in Indian Philosophy and Its Textual History (pp. 79–120). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.Google Scholar
  87. Weightman, S. C. R. (1992). The text of Alakh Bānī. In R. S. McGregor (Ed.), Devotional Literature in South Asia: Current Research 1985–1988 (pp. 172–178). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Oriental and African StudiesUniversity of LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations