Journal of Indian Philosophy

, Volume 39, Issue 4–5, pp 391–410 | Cite as

Sātmaka, Nairātmya, and A-Nairātmya: Dharmakīrti’s Counter-Argument Against the Proof of Ātman

Article

Abstract

Ātman (soul) and Nairātmya (no soul) are, for the Brahmanical schools and the Buddhists respectively, equally fundamental tenets which neither side can concede to the other. Among the 16 formulations presented by Uddyotakara, the fifteenth, which is a proof of Ātman and is originally an indirect proof (avīta/āvīta), is presented in a prasaṅga-style, and contains double negation (na nairātmyam) in the thesis. However, it is perhaps Dharmakīrti who first transformed it into a normal style (sātmakam). He is well aware of the law of excluded middle, and insisits that the negation is paryudāsa. On the Nyāya side, Uddyotakara at least seems to be unaware of the law of the logical equivalence of contraposition concerning pervasion (vyāpti). After Uddyotakara, however, Vyoman (Vyomaśiva), Bhāsarvajña and Vācaspatimiśra, all seem to be well aware of it. Dharmakīrti, in his conter-argument against the proof of ātman, discusses the negative expressions ‘‘nairātmya” and ‘‘a-nairātmya” Dharmakīrti here uses two logical arguments skillfully and tactically. As a critic of both the authenticity of the Veda and the existence of ātman, he insists on the theory of dichotomy and the equivalence of anvaya and vyatireka, whereas as an apologist he denies the application of these theories to the relation between the existence of ātman and the concept of nairātmya, because for him as a Buddhist the latter is not a negative but essentially positive state of affairs.

Keywords

Ātman Prasaṅga Kevalavyatirekin Nairātmya Paryudāsa Contraposition Dichotomy 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

Abbreviations and Primary Sources

  1. NBhū Nyāyabhūṣaṇam of Bhāsarvajña, śrīmadācāryabhāsarvajñaprantasya nyāyasārasya svopajñaṃvyākhyānaṃ. Ed. Yogīndrānanda ṣadarśana-’s anagranthamālā, 1968.Google Scholar
  2. NV1 Nyāyavārttikam, a Gloss on Vātsyāyana’s Commentary of the Nyāya-Aphorisms, Ed. Vindhyeśvarī Prasād Dvivedin, Bibliotheca Indica 133, Calcutta, 1887–1916. Rep. with an Introduction by R. C. Pandeya, & Eastern Book Linkers, Delhi, 1986.Google Scholar
  3. NV2 Nyāyavārttikam with Nyāyavārttikasya bhūmikā, Ed. Vindhyeśvarī prasāda Dvivedin, Kāshīsaṃskṛt Series, 1916.Google Scholar
  4. NV3 NV in Nyāyadarśanam with Vātsyāyana’s Bhāṣya, Uddyotakara’s Vārttika, Vācaspati Miśra’s Tātparyaṭīkā, and Viśvanātha’s Vṛtti, Ed. Taranatha Nyaya-Tarkatirtha, Amarendramohan Tarkatirtha, Calcutta Sanskrit Series Nos. 18, 29, 1936, 1944. Rep. Rinsen Book Co. 1982.Google Scholar
  5. NV4 NV in Nyāyadarśana of Gautama, with the Bhāṣya of Vātsyāyana, the Vārttika of Uddyotakara, the Tātparyaṭīkā of Vācaspati and the Pariśuddhi of Udayana, Vol. 1. Chap. 1, Ed. Anantalal Thakur, Mithila Insūtitute Series, Ancient Text No. 20, 1967.Google Scholar
  6. NV5 NV in Nyāya bhāṣyavārttika of Bhāradvāja Uddyotakara, Ed. Anantalal Thakur. Nyāya caturgranthikā Vol. 2, New Delhi, 1997.Google Scholar
  7. NVTṬ Nyāyavārttikatātparyaṭīkā of Vācaspatimiśra. See NV3.Google Scholar
  8. PVBh Pramāṇavārttikabhāshyam or Vārttikālaṅkāraḥ of Prajñākaragupta, (Being a commentary on Dharmakīrti’s Pramāṇavārttikam), Ed. Rahula Sāṅkṛtyāyana, Patna, 1953.Google Scholar
  9. PVin Manuscript (Photo Copy) in WIEN.Google Scholar
  10. PVSV1 The Pramāṇavārttikasvavṛtti of Dharmakīrti, The first chapter with the Autocommentary, Text and Critical Notes, Ed. Raniero Gnoli, Serie Orientale Roma XXIII, Roma, 1960.Google Scholar
  11. PVSV2 Svārthānumāna-Pariccheda by Dharmakirti, Hindu Vidhvavidyalaya Nepal Rajya Sanskrit Series, Vol. 2. Ed. D. Malvaniya, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 1959.Google Scholar
  12. PVV1 Pramāṇavārttikavṛtti of Manorathanandin, Ed. Rahula Sāṅkṛtyāyana, Patna, 1937.Google Scholar
  13. PVV2 Pramāṇavārttika of Acharya Dharmakirtti, With the Commentary ‘Vritti’ of Acharya Manorathanandin, Ed. Swami Dwarikadas Shastri, BBS Vol. 3, Varanasi. 1968.Google Scholar
  14. Vyom1 Praśastapādabhāṣyam of Praśasta Devāchārya with Commentaries (up to Dravya) Sūkti by Jagadiśa Tarkālaṅkāra, Setu by Padmanābha Miśra and Vyomavatī by Vyomaśivāchārya (to the end), Ed. M. M.Gopīnāth Kavirāj, Chowkhambha Sanskrit Series No. 61, Benares, 1924–31, Second Ed. 1983.Google Scholar
  15. Vyom2 Vyomavatī of Vyomaśivācārya, Ed. Gaurinath Saatri, M.M. Śivakumāraśāstri Granthamālā, Vol. 6, Varanasi, 1983.Google Scholar
  16. TBV Tattvabodhavidhāyinī, in Saṃmatitarkaprakaraṇam. Saṃmatitarkaprakaraṇam by Siddhasena Divākara with Abhayadevasūri’s Commentary Tattvabodhavidhāyinī, Ed. Sukhlāl Saṅgavi and Becardās Dośi, Gujarāta Purātattvamandira Granthāvalī 10, 16, 18, 19, 21, Ahmedabad, 1924–1931. Rep. Rinsen, Kyoto, 1984.Google Scholar
  17. TBhK Tarkabhāṣā of Keśavamiśra with the commentary Tarkabhāṣāprakāśikā of Cinnaṃbhaṭṭa. Ed. D. R. Bhandarkar and Pandit Kedarnath, Sāhityabhūṣaṇa, Bombay Sanskrit and Prakrit Series, LXXXIV, 1937.Google Scholar
  18. TSP Tattvasaṇgraha of Ācārya Śāntarakṣita with the commentary ‘‘Pañjikā” of Shri Kamalaśīla. Ed. Swami Dwarikadas Shastri, Bauddha Bharati Series 1, 2. Second Ed. 1981, 1982.Google Scholar

Secondary Sources

  1. Franco E. (1999) Avīta and Āvīta. Asiatische Studien, Études Asiatiques LIII 3: 563–577Google Scholar
  2. Kano K. (1999) On anyathānupapatti and avīta/āvīta. In: Katsura S. (eds) Dharmakīrti’s thought and its impact on Indian and Tibetan Philosophy, Proceedings of the international Dharmakīrti conference, Hiroshima. Wien, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, pp 173–184Google Scholar
  3. Kano K. (2001) Pariśeṣa Prasaṅga, and Kevalavyatirekin—The logical structure of the proof of Ātman. Journal of Indian Philosophy 29: 405–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kano K. (2011). Dichotomy, antarvyāpti, and dṛṣṭānta, In H. Krasser, H. Lasic, E. Franco & B. Kellner (Eds.), Religion and logic in Buddhist philosophical analysis. Proceedings of the fourth international Dharmakīrti conference, Vienna, August 23–27, 2005 (pp. 231–254). Wien: Verlag der Österreichschen Akademie der Wissenschaften.Google Scholar
  5. Katsura S. (2002) Dignāga-ronnrigaku ni okeru pakṣa, sapaakṣa, asapakṣa no imi [The meaning of pakṣa, sapaakṣa, asapakṣa in Dignāga’s logic]. Indotetsugaku-Bukkyogaku 18: 20–33Google Scholar
  6. Katsura, S. (2004). The role of dṛṣṭānta in Dignāga’s logic. In S. Katsura & E. Steinkellner (Eds.), The role of the Example (dṛṣṭānta) in classical Indian logic (pp. 135–173). WSTB 58. Wien: Universität Wien.Google Scholar
  7. Ogawa H. (2011). On the term anupalabdih. In H. Krasser, H. Lasic, E. Franco & B. Kellner (Eds.), Religion and logic in Buddhist philosophical analysis. Proceedings of the fourth international Dharmakīrti conference, Vienna, August 23–27, 2005 (pp. 395–405). Wien: Verlag der Österreichschen Akademie der Wissenschaften.Google Scholar
  8. Slaje W. (1983) Die Wahrnehmungslehre bei Vyomaśivaḥ. Disseration, WienGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kobe Women’s UniversityKobeJapan

Personalised recommendations