Advertisement

Journal of Indian Philosophy

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 253–286 | Cite as

Good and Evil in Indian Buddhism: The five Sins of Immediate Retribution

  • Jonathan A. SilkEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Indian Buddhist sources speak of five sins of immediate retribution: murder of mother, father, an arhat, drawing the blood of a buddha, and creating a schism in the monastic community. This category provides the paradigm for sinfulness in Buddhism. Yet even these sins can and will, be expiated in the long run, demonstrating the overwhelmingly positive nature of Buddhist ethics

Keywords

Evil Sin Ethics Indian Buddhism Sins of immediate retribution 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aung, Shwe Zan, and [C. A. F.] Rhys Davids (1915). Points of Controversy or Subjects of Discourse, being a translation of the Kathā-vatthu from the Abhidhamma-piṭaka. Pali Text Society Translation Series 5 (Reprint: Oxford: The Pali Text Society, 1993).Google Scholar
  2. Banerjee, Anukul Chandra (1977). Two Buddhist Vinaya texts in Sanskrit. Calcutta, The World Press Private LimitedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bapat, P[urośottam] V[iśvanath], and V[asudev] V[ishvanath] Gokhale (1982). Vinaya-sūtra. Tibetan Sanskrit Works Series 22. Patna: Kashi Prasad Jayaswal Research Institute.Google Scholar
  4. Bapat, P[urośottam] V[iśvanath], and Akira Hirakawa. (1970). Shan-Chien-P’i-P’o-Sha: A Chinese Version by Saṇghabhadra of Samantapāsādikā. Bhandarkar Oriental Series 10. Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute.Google Scholar
  5. Bendall, Cecil (1897–1902). Çikshāsamuccaya: A Compendium of Buddhistic Teaching Compiled by Çāntideva, Chiefly from Earlier Mahāyāna-sūtras. Bibliotheca Buddhica 1. St. Pétersbourg: Imperial Academy. Reprint: Osnabrück, Biblio Verlag (1970).Google Scholar
  6. Bendall, Cecil (1903–1904). “Subhāṣita-saṁgraha: An anthology of extracts from Buddhist works compiled by an unknown author, to illustrate the doctrines of scholastic and of mystik (tāntrik) Buddhism.” Muséon, 4, 375–402, 5, 5–46, 245–274.Google Scholar
  7. Bendall, Cecil, and W[illiam] H[enry] D[enham] Rouse (1922). Śikṣā-samuccaya: A compendium of Buddhist Doctrine. London; Reprint: New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass (1971).Google Scholar
  8. Bhattacharya, Vidhushekhara (1957). The Yogācārabhūmi of Ācārya Asaṇga: The Sanksrit Text Compared with the Tibetan Version. Calcutta: The University of Calcutta.Google Scholar
  9. Black, Deborah (1997). Leaves of the Heaven Tree: The Great Compassion of the Buddha. Berkeley, Dharma PublishingGoogle Scholar
  10. Bloomfield, Maurice (1926). “Organized Brigandage in Hindu Fiction”. The American Journal of Philology 47(3): 205–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Böhtlingk, Otto, and Rudolph Roth (1855–1875). Sanskrit-Wörterbuch. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. 7 volumes.Google Scholar
  12. Brough, John (1957). “Some notes on Maitrakanyaka: Divyāvadāna XXXVIII.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 20, 111–132. Reprinted in Minoru Hara and J. C. Wright, eds., John Brough: Collected Papers. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, (1996) pp. 159–180.Google Scholar
  13. Burlingame, Eugene Watson (1917, 1921). Buddhist Legends. Harvard Oriental Series 28, 29, 30. Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press; Reprint: London: Pali Text Society (1979).Google Scholar
  14. Buswell, Robert E., Jr. (1992). “The Path to Perdition: The Wholesome Roots and their Eradication”. In R. E. Buswell, Jr. & R. M. Gimello (Eds), Paths to Liberation: The Mārga and Its Transformations in Buddhist Thought, (pp. 107–134). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  15. Chakravarti, Chintaharan (1984). Guhyasamājatantrapradīpodyotanaṭīkāṣaṭkoṭivyākhyā. Tibetan Sanskrit Works Series 25. Patna: Kashi Prasad Jayaswal Research Institute.Google Scholar
  16. Chavannes, Emmanuel Édouard (1910–1911, 1934). Cinq Cents Contes et Apologues extraits du Tripiṭaka chinois et traduits en Français. Paris: Ernest Leroux.Google Scholar
  17. Cleary, Thomas (1984–1987). The Flower Ornament Scripture: The Avatamsaka Sutra Translated from the Chinese. Boulder & London: Shambala. 3 volumes.Google Scholar
  18. Cowell, Edward Byles and Robert Alexander Neil (1886). The Divyāvadāna: A Collection of Early Buddhist Legends. Cambridge; Reprint Amsterdam: Oriental Press / Philo Press (1970).Google Scholar
  19. Cowell, Edward Byles, et al. (1895–1907). The Jātaka, or Stories of the Buddha’s Former Births. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Reprint London: Pali Text Society (1981).Google Scholar
  20. Das, Sarat Chandra, and Hari Mohan Vidyābhūṣaṅa (and Satis Chandra Vidyābhūṣaṅa) (1888–1918). Bodhisattvāvadānakalpalatā. Bibliotheca Indica 124. Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press.Google Scholar
  21. Deleanu, Florin (2006). The Chapter on the Mundane Path (Laukikamārga) in the Śrāvakabhūmi. A Trilingual Edition (Sanskrit, Tibetan, Chinese), Annotated Translation, and Introductory Study. Studia Philologica Buddhica, Monograph Series 20. Tokyo: The International Institute for Buddhist Studies.Google Scholar
  22. Dessein, Bart (1999). Saṁyuktābhidharmahr̥daya: Heart of Scholasticism with Miscellaneous Additions. Part I. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.Google Scholar
  23. Dutt, Nalinaksha (1939–1959). Gilgit Manuscripts. Srinagar and Calcutta: J. C. Sarkhel at the Calcutta Oriental Press. Four volumes in nine parts.Google Scholar
  24. Eggeling, Julius (1882–1900). The Śatapatha-Brâhmaṇa, according to the text of the Mâdhyandina school. The Sacred Books of the East 12, 26, 41, 43, 44. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  25. Eimer, Helmut (1983). Rab Tu ’Byuṇ Ba’i Gzi. Asiatische Forschungen 82. (2 Volumes). Wiesbaden, Otto HarrassowitzGoogle Scholar
  26. Fausbøll, Michel Viggo (1877–1896). The Jātaka, together with its commentary. London: Trübner & Co.Google Scholar
  27. Feer, Henri Léon (1878). “Études boudhiques. Maitrakanyaka-Mittavindaka, la piété filiale.” Journal Asiatique 7th ser, 11, 360–443.Google Scholar
  28. Feer, Henri Léon (1883). Fragments Extraits du Kandjour. Annales du Musée Guimet (Vol. 5), Paris: Ernest Leroux.Google Scholar
  29. Funahashi, Issai 舟橋一哉. (1954). Gō no Kenkyū 業の研究 (Kyoto: Hōzōkan 法藏館).Google Scholar
  30. Gómez, Luis O[scar]. (1996). Land of Bliss: The Paradise of the Buddha of Measureless Light. Sanskrit and Chinese versions of the Sukhāvatīvyūha. Honolulu, University of Hawaii PressGoogle Scholar
  31. Guenther, Herbert V. (1959). The Jewel Ornament of Liberation. Dam.chos yid.bin.gyi nor.bu thar.pa rin.po che’i rgyan es.bya.ba theg.pa. chen.po’i lam.rim.gyi bśad.pa. London: Rider & Company.Google Scholar
  32. Hara, Minoru 原実 (2003). “Kodai Indo no joseikan (2)” 古代インドの女性観 (2) [Women in ancient India 2]. Journal of the International College for Advanced Buddhist Studies / Kokusai Bukkyō Daigakuin Daigaku Kenkyū Kiyō 国際仏教大学院大学研究紀要, 6, 1–42 (232–191).Google Scholar
  33. Hayashima, Osamu 早島理. (2003). Bonzōkan-taikō E-text Abhidharmasamuccaya and Abhidharmasamuccayabhāṣya 梵蔵漢対校 E-text Abhidharmasamuccaya and Abhidharmasamuccayabhāṣya. Shiga, Japan: Privately Published. Available at http://www.shiga-med.ac.jp/public/yugagyo/.Google Scholar
  34. Hirakawa Akira 平川彰 et al. (1973). Index to the Abhidharmakośabhāṣya (P. Pradhan Edition). Part One: Sanskrit-Tibetan-Chinese. Tokyo: Daizo Shuppan.Google Scholar
  35. Horner, Isaline Blew (1938–1966). The Book of the Discipline (Vinaya Piṭaka). London: The Pali Text Society.Google Scholar
  36. Hubbard, Jamie, Paul L. Swanson (1997). Pruning the Bodhi Tree: The storm over critical Buddhism. Honolulu, University of Hawaii PressGoogle Scholar
  37. Iwamoto Yutaka 岩本裕 (1978). Kaitei zōho Bukkyō Setsuwa Kenkyū Josetsu 改訂増甫仏教説話研究序説. Bukkyō Setsuwa Kenkyū 佛教説話研究 1 (Tokyo: Kaimei shoin 開明書院).Google Scholar
  38. Jaini, Padmanabh S. (1959). “The Sautrāntika theory of bīja”. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 22(1–3), 236–249.Google Scholar
  39. Jamison, Stephanie W. (1991). The Ravenous Hyenas and the Wounded Sun: Myth and ritual in ancient India. Ithaca, Cornell University PressGoogle Scholar
  40. Jamison, Stephanie W. (1996). Sacrificed wife / Sacrificer’s wife: Women, ritual, and hospitality in ancient India. New York, Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  41. Jinananda, B. (1961). Upasampadājñaptiḥ. Tibetan Sanskrit Works Series 6. Patna: Kashi Prasad Jayaswal Research Institute.Google Scholar
  42. Johnston, E[dward] H[amilton] (1950). The Ratnagotravibhāga Mahāyānottaratantraśāstra. Patna, Bihar Research Society.Google Scholar
  43. Kagawa Takao 香川孝雄. (1984). Muryōjukyō no Shohon Taishō Kenkyū 無量寿経の諸本對照研究 Kyoto: Nagata Bunshōdō 永田文昌堂). [The paragraphs agree with those of Max Müller’s edition, but are further sub-divided.]Google Scholar
  44. Kane, P[andurang] V[aman] (1968–1977). History of Dharmaśāstra (Ancient and Medieval Religious and Civil Law in India). (2nd ed.) Government Oriental Series B 6 (5 Volumes). Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute.Google Scholar
  45. Klaus, Konrad (1983). Das Maitrakanyakāvadāna (Divyāvadāna 38). Indica et Tibetica 2. Bonn: Indica et Tibetica Verlag.Google Scholar
  46. La Vallée Poussin, Louis de (1901–1914). Bodhicaryāvatārapañjikā, Prajñākaramati’s Commentary to the Bodhicaryāvatāra of Çāntideva. Bibliotheca Indica 983, 1031, 1090, 1126, 1139, 1305, 1399. Calcutta: Asiatic Society.Google Scholar
  47. La Vallée Poussin, Louis de (1903–1913). Mūlamadhyamakakārikās (Mādhyamikasūtras) de Nāgārjuna avec la Prasannapadā Commentaire de Candrakīrti. Bibliotheca Buddhica 4. St. Pétersbourg: Imperial Academy. Reprint: Osnabrück: Biblio Verlag (1970).Google Scholar
  48. La Vallée Poussin, Louis de (1923–1931). L’Abhidharmakośa de Vasubandhu. Paris: Geuthner; Reprint Mélanges chinois et bouddhiques16. Bruselles: Institut Belge des hautes Études Chinoises (1971).Google Scholar
  49. Lamotte, Étienne Paul Marie (1944–1980). Le Traité de la grande Vertu de Sagesse. Publications de l’Institut Orientaliste de Louvain 25, 26, 2, 12, 24. (5 Volumes). Louvain: Université de Louvain; reprint, 1970–1981.Google Scholar
  50. Lamotte, Étienne Paul Marie (1976). The Teaching of Vimalakīrti (Vimalakīrtinirdeśa). Trans. Sara Boin. London: The Pali Text Society.Google Scholar
  51. Lariviere, Richard W. (1989). The Nāradasmr̥ti: Critically edited with an introduction, annotated translation, and appendices. University of Pennsylvania Studies on South Asia 4 (2 Vols). Philadelphia: Department of South Asia Regional Studies, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  52. Lévi, Sylvain (1932). “Note sur des Manuscrits Sanscrits Provenant de Bamiyan (Afghanistan), et de Gilgit (Cachemire)”. Journal Asiatique, 220, 1–45.Google Scholar
  53. Liebenthal, Walter (1955). “A Biography of Chu Tao-sheng.” Monumenta Nipponica 11(3): 284–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Liebenthal, Walter (1956). “The World Conception of Chu Tao-sheng”. Monumenta Nipponica 12(1–2): 65–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Maeda, Hisao 前田壽雄. (2003). “Hōnen ni okeru gyakubō no sukui” 法然における逆謗の救い [Salvation from the five grave offences and slandering the Dharma in Hōnen’s thought]. Indo Tetsugaku Bukkyōgaku 印度哲学仏教学, 18, 212–228.Google Scholar
  56. Malalasekera, George Peiris [Gunapala Piyasena]. (1938). Dictionary of Pāli Proper Names. London, Pali Text SocietyGoogle Scholar
  57. Matsunaga, Yukei 松長有慶. (1978). The Guhyasamāja Tantra. Tokyo, Toho ShuppanGoogle Scholar
  58. Mejor, Marek. Kṣemendra’s Bodhisattvāvadānakalpalatā: Studies and Materials. Studia Philologica Buddhica, Monograph Series 8. Tokyo: The International Institute for Buddhist Studies.Google Scholar
  59. Meyer, Johann Jakob. (1930). Sexual Life in Ancient India: A Study in the Comparative History of Indian Culture. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co.Google Scholar
  60. Mochizuki, RyōƜ 望月良晃. (1988). Daijō Nehangyō no Kenkyū 大乗涅槃経の研究 [A Study of the Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa-sūtra]. Tokyo: Shunjūsha 春秋社.Google Scholar
  61. Mochizuki, Shinkō 月信亨. (1932–1936). Bukkyō Daijiten 佛教大辭典. Tokyo: Sekai Seiten Kankō Kyōkai 世界聖典刊行協会.Google Scholar
  62. Morris, Richard, and Edmund Hardy (1885–1900). The Aṅguttara-Nikāya, (2nd ed.) revised by A. K. Warder. London: The Pali Text Society. Reprint: (1961).Google Scholar
  63. Nanjio, Bunyiu (1923). The Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra. Bibliotheca Otaniensis 1 (Reprint: Kyoto: Otani Univeristy Press, 1956).Google Scholar
  64. Näther, Volkbert (1975). Das Gilgit-Fragment Or. 11878A im Britischen Museum zu London: Herausgegeben, mit dem Tibetischen verglichen un übersetzt. Marburg: Erich Mauersberger.Google Scholar
  65. Näther, Volkbert (2003). “The Final Leaves of the Pravrajyāvastu Portion of the Vinayavastu Manuscript Found Near Gilgit: Part 2 Nāgakumārāvadāna”. Edited by Volkbert Näther, revised and translated by Claus Vogel and Klaus Wille. In Jin-il Chung, Claus Vogel and Klaus Wille, eds., Sanskrit-Texte aus dem buddhistischen Kanon: Neuentdeckungen und Neueditionen IV. Sanskrit-Wörterbuch der buddhistischen texte aus den Turfan-Funden Beiheft 9 (pp. 11–76). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.Google Scholar
  66. Nishiwaki, Augustine Hiroshi (1962). The Dharma-Saṁgraha: A new edition with linguistic commentary. Doctoral dissertation, The Catholic University of America.Google Scholar
  67. Nolot, Édith (1991). Règles de Discipline des Nonnes Bouddhistes. Collège de France, Publications de l’Institut de Civilisation Indienne 60. Paris: Collège de France.Google Scholar
  68. Nolot, Édith (1996). “Studies in Vinaya Technical Terms I–III”. Journal of the Pali Text Society, 22, 73–150.Google Scholar
  69. Norman, H[arry] C[ampbell] (1906–1914). The Commentary on the Dhammapada. Reprint: London: Pali Text Society, 1970.Google Scholar
  70. Norman, Kenneth Roy (1992). The Group of Discourses (Sutta-Nipāta). Volume II: Revised Translation with Introduction and Notes. Pali Text Society Translation Series 45. Oxford: The Pali Text Society.Google Scholar
  71. Nyanaponika, Thera and Hellmuth Hecker (1997). Great Disciples of the Buddha: Their lives, their works, their legacy. Boston, Wisdom PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  72. Oldenberg, Hermann (1879–1883). The Vinaya Piṭakaṁ: One of the Principal Buddhist Holy Scriptures in the Pāli Language. Reprint: London: The Pali Text Society (1984).Google Scholar
  73. Ono, Genmyō 小野玄妙. (1932–1935). Bussho Kaisetsu Daijiten 佛書解説大辭典. Tokyo: Daitō Shuppansha 大東出版社.Google Scholar
  74. Pāsādika, Bhikkhu (1989a). Nāgārjuna’s Sūtrasamuccaya: A Critical Edition of the Mdo kun las btus pa. Fontes Tibetici Havnienses 2. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag.Google Scholar
  75. Pāsādika, Bhikkhu (1989b). Kanonische Zitate im Abhidharmakośabhāṣya des Vasubandhu. Sanskrit-Wörterbuch der buddhistischen texte aus den Turfan-Funden Beiheft 1. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.Google Scholar
  76. Patel, Prabhubhai Bhikhabhai (1949). Cittavisuddhprakarana of Aryadeva. Sanskrit and Tibetan Texts. Visva-Bharati Series 8. Visva-Bharati.Google Scholar
  77. Pradhan, Prahlad (1975). Abhidharmakośabhāṣyam of Vasubandhu. Tibetan Sanskrit Works Series 8. Patna: K. P. Jayaswal Research Institute.Google Scholar
  78. Renou, Louis (1975). Grammaire Sanscrite. Second corrected edition. Paris, Adrien MaisonneuveGoogle Scholar
  79. Roth, Gustav (1970). Bhikṣuṇī-Vinaya: Manual of Discipline for Buddhist Nuns. Tibetan Sanskrit Works Series 12. Patna: K.P. Jayaswal Research Institute.Google Scholar
  80. Ruegg, David Seyfort (1969). La Theorie du Tathāgatagarbha et du Gotra. Publications de l’École française d’Extrême-Orient 70. Paris: École Française d’Extrême-Orient.Google Scholar
  81. Saeki, Kyokuga 佐伯旭雅 (1887). Kandō Abidatsuma Kusharon 冠導阿毘達磨倶舎論. Photo reprint of woodblock edition: Kyoto: Hōzōkan 法蔵館. (1978) 3 Volumes (continuous pagination).Google Scholar
  82. Sasaki, Shizuka 佐々木閑 (1996). “Biku ni narenai hitobito” 比丘になれない人々 [Those who cannot become monks]. Hanazono Daigaku Bungakubu Kenkyū Kiyō 花園大学文学部研究紀要, 28, 111–148.Google Scholar
  83. Schopen, Gregory (1997). Bones, Stones, and Buddhist monks: Collected papers on the Archaeology, epigraphy, and texts of Monastic Buddhsim in India. Honolulu, University of Hawaii PressGoogle Scholar
  84. Schopen, Gregory (2001). “Dead Monks and Bad Debts: Some Provisions of a Buddhist Monastic Inheritance Law”. Indo-Iranian Journal 44: 99–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Shimoda, Masahiro 下田正弘 (1997). Nehangyō no Kenkyū: Daijō Kyōten no Kenkyū Hōhō Shiron 涅槃経の研究 大: 乗経典の研究方法試論. Tokyo: Shunjūsha 春秋社.Google Scholar
  86. Silk, Jonathan A. (2003). “The fruits of paradox: On the religious architecture of the Buddha’s life story”. Journal of the American Academy of Religion 71(4): 863–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Silk, Jonathan A. (Forthcoming a). “Forbidden women: A peculiar buddhist reference”. In: P. Zieme (Ed.), Aspects of research into Central Asian Buddhism. In memorium Klōgi Kudura. Silk Road studies 30 (Turnhout: Brepols).Google Scholar
  88. Silk, Jonathan A. (Forthcoming b). “Garlanding as Sexual Invitation. Indian Buddhist Evidence”.Google Scholar
  89. Skilling, Peter. (2003). “The three seals code on crimes related to relics, images, and Bodhi-trees”. In W. Phongsipan, (ed.), Sichamai-achan: Phiphit niphon chert chu kiat satsadachan dr. prasert na nakhonsatsadachan wisuth butsayakun nuang nai okat mi ayu 84 pi nai pho. so 2546 (pp. 287–307) Bangkok: Fuang fa Printing.Google Scholar
  90. Snellgrove, David L. (1987). Indo-Tibetan Buddhism: Indian Buddhists and their Tibetan successors. London, Serindia PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  91. Suzuki, Daisetz Teitaro. (1932). The Lankavatara Sutra: A Mahayana Text. Translated for the First Time from the Original Sanskrit. London: George Routledge and Sons, Ltd.Google Scholar
  92. Suzuki, Daisetz Teitaro, and Hokei Idzumi. (1949). The Gandavyuha Sutra. Kyoto: The Society for the Publication of Sacred Books of the World. Revision of 1934 edition.Google Scholar
  93. Takasaki, Jikido. 崎. (1966). A Study on the Ratnagotravibhāga (Uttaratantra): Being a Treatise on the Tathāgarbha Theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism. Serie Oriental Roma 33. Rome: Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente.Google Scholar
  94. Takasaki, Jikido. (1989). Hōshōron 宝性論. Tokyo: Kōdansha 講談社.Google Scholar
  95. Tayé, Jamgön Kongtrul Lodrö. (1998). Buddhist Ethics. Translated and edited by the International Translation Committee founded by the V.V. Kalu Rinpoché. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publications.Google Scholar
  96. Trenckner, Vilhelm, et al. (1924). A Critical Pāli Dictionary. Copenhagen, Royal Danish AcademyGoogle Scholar
  97. Tucci, Giuseppe. (1949). Tibetan Painted Scrolls. Rome: La Libreria Dello Stato; Reprint: Bangkok: SDI Publications (1999).Google Scholar
  98. Walleser, Max, and Hermann Kopp (1924–1957). Manorathapūraṇī: Buddhaghosa’s Commentary on the Aṇ̇guttara-nikāya. London: Pali Text Society.Google Scholar
  99. Wogihara Unrai. (1936). Sphuṭārthā Abhidharmakośavyākhyā: The work of Yaśomitra Reprint: Tokyo: Sankibo Bookstore (1989).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Asian Languages & Cultures, Center for Buddhist StudiesUniversity of California Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations