Advertisement

The Cellular Relay Carpet: Distributed Cooperation with Ubiquitous Relaying

  • Raphael T. L. Rolny
  • Tim Rüegg
  • Marc Kuhn
  • Armin Wittneben
Article

Abstract

We consider the up- as well as downlink of a cellular network in which base stations (BSs) are supported by a large amount of relays spread over the entire area like a carpet. The BSs only see the static relays as the nodes they communicate with, which enables large antenna arrays at the BSs with sophisticated multi-user MIMO transmission. Together with a simple form of BS cooperation, the communication via the small relay cells allows to improve the data rates by distributed interference management and to reduce the complexity at the terminals. We investigate different types of relays as well as different relaying strategies for this relay carpet and compare them with respect to complexity, required channel state information (CSI), and performance in the interference-limited environment of dense cellular networks. The robustness of the different schemes with respect to channel estimation errors is studied and we conclude that especially relays of very low complexity are not sensitive to CSI imperfections. Relays can thus be applied in large numbers and enable massive MIMO at the BSs. The relay carpet proves thereby to be an efficient approach to enhance future generations of cellular networks significantly.

Keywords

Cellular networks Cooperation Relaying Multi-user MIMO Channel estimation Imperfections 

References

  1. 1.
    R. Rolny, M. Kuhn, and A. Wittneben, The relay carpet: ubiquitous two-way relaying in cooperative cellular networks. In PIMRC’13, London, UK, Sep 2013.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Lee et al., Coordinated multipoint transmission and reception in LTE-advanced systems. IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 50, No. 11, pp. 44–50, 2012.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. Marzetta, Noncooperative cellular wireless with unlimited numbers of base station antennas, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 9, No. 11, pp. 3590–3600, 2010.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. Nakamura et al., Trends in small cell enhancements in LTE-advanced, IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 98–105, 2013.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Ghosh et al., Heterogeneous cellular networks: from theory to practice, IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 50, No. 6, pp. 54–64, 2012.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    K. Hosseini et al., Massive MIMO and small cells: how to densify heterogeneous networks. In ICC, June 2013.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    W. Choi, and J. Andrews, Downlink performance and capacity of distributed antenna systems in a multicell environment, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 69–73, 2007.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. Viswanathan, and S. Mukherjee, Performance of cellular networks with relays and centralized scheduling, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 4, No. 5, pp. 2318–2328, 2005.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. Gesbert et al., Multi-cell MIMO cooperative networks: a new look at interference, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 28, No. 9, pp. 1380–1408, 2010.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M.K. Karakayali, G.J. Foschini, R.A. Valenzuela, and R. Yates, On the maximum common rate achievable in a coordinated network. In IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), June 2006.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S.A. Ramprashad, G. Caire, and H.C. Papadopoulos, Cellular and network MIMO architectures: MU-MIMO spectral efficiency and costs of channel state information. In Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, Nov 2009.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Lozano, R. Heath, and J. Andrews, Fundamental limits of cooperation, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 59, No. 9, pp. 5213–5226, 2013.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Peters, A. Panah, K. Truong, and R. Heath, Relay architectures for 3GPP LTE-advanced, EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, Vol. 2009, No. 1, pp. 11–114, 2009.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Wittneben, and B. Rankov, Impact of cooperative relays on the capacity of rank-deficient MIMO channels. In Proceedings of the 12th IST Summit on Mobile and Wireless Communications. pp. 421–425, June 2003.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. Rolny, J. Wagner, C. Esli, and A. Wittneben, Distributed gain matrix optimization in non-regenerative MIMO relay networks. In Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, Nov 2009.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    G. Kramer, M. Gastpar, and P. Gupta, Cooperative strategies and capacity theorems for relay networks, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 51, No. 9, pp. 3037–3063, 2005.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    K. J. R. Liu, A. K. Sadek, W. Su, and A. Kwasinski, Cooperative Communications and Networking. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2009.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    B. Rankov, and A. Wittneben, Spectral efficient signaling for half-duplex relay channels. In Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, Nov 2005.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. Zhao, M. Kuhn, A. Wittneben, and G. Bauch, Self-interference aided channel estimation in two-way relaying systems. In IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), Nov 2008.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    D. Tse, and P. Viswanath, Fundamentals of Wireless Communication. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2005.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    C. Esli, Design and optimization of distributed multiuser cooperative wireless networks, Ph.D. Thesis, ETH Zurich, 2010.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    B. Rankov, and A. Wittneben, Achievable rate regions for the two-way relay channel. In IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, pp. 1668–1672, July 2006.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Sun, Y. Ju, and Y. Yamao, Overlay cognitive radio OFDM system for 4G cellular networks, IEEE on Wireless Communications, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 68–73, 2013.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Q. Spencer, A. Swindlehurst, and M. Haardt, Zero-forcing methods for downlink spatial multiplexing in multiuser MIMO channels, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 52, No. 2, pp. 461–471, 2004.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    K. Gomadam, V. Cadambe, and S. Jafar, Approaching the capacity of wireless networks through distributed interference alignment. In IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), pp. 1–6, 2008.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. Haykin, Adaptive Filter Theory (3rd ed.). Prentice-Hall Inc, Upper Saddle River, 1996.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    T. Weber, A. Sklavos, and M. Meurer, Imperfect channel-state information in MIMO transmission, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 54, No. 3, pp. 543–552, 2006.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    R. Rolny, M. Kuhn, A. Wittneben, and T. Zasowski, Relaying and base station cooperation: a comparative survey for future cellular networks. In Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, Nov 2012.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raphael T. L. Rolny
    • 1
  • Tim Rüegg
    • 1
  • Marc Kuhn
    • 1
  • Armin Wittneben
    • 1
  1. 1.Communication Technology LaboratoryETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations