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Modeling the Effect of Human Body on TOA Based Indoor Human Tracking

  • Yishuang Geng
  • Jie He
  • Kaveh Pahlavan
Article

Abstract

In time-of-arrival (TOA) based indoor human tracking system, the human body mounted with the target sensor can cause non-line of sight (NLOS) scenario and result in significant ranging error. However, the previous studies on the behavior of indoor TOA ranging did not take the effects of human body into account. In this paper, measurement of TOA ranging error has been conducted in a typical indoor environment and sources of inaccuracy in TOA-based indoor localization have been analyzed. To quantitatively describe the TOA ranging error caused by human body, we introduce a statistical TOA ranging error model for body mounted sensors based on the measurement results. This model separates the ranging error into multipath error and NLOS error caused by the creeping wave phenomenon. Both multipath error and NLOS error are modeled as a Gaussian variable. The distribution of multipath error is only relative to the bandwidth of the system while the distribution of NLOS error is relative to the angle between human facing direction and the direction of transmitter–receiver, signal to noise ratio and bandwidth of the system, which clearly shows the effects of human body on TOA ranging.

Keywords

TOA Body area network Ranging error Human tracking Indoor localization Indoor location system 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to thank Mao Wenbo from Wake Forest University and Adria Fung from WPI for editing the paper and Dr. Yunxing Ye from CWINS, WPI for building the measurement system. The technical discussion with Dr. Yadong Wan from USTB is of great help. This work has been performed under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Measurement, Science and Engineering Grants Program (NIST Grant No. 60NANB10D001), which is supported by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This work is partly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61003251 and 61172049) and Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 20100006110015).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Electrical and Computer EngineeringWorcester Polytechnic InstituteWorcesterUSA
  2. 2.School of Computer and Communication EngineeringUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina

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