Advertisement

RF Localization for Wireless Video Capsule Endoscopy

  • K. PahlavanEmail author
  • G. Bao
  • Y. Ye
  • S. Makarov
  • U. Khan
  • P. Swar
  • D. Cave
  • A. Karellas
  • P. Krishnamurthy
  • K. Sayrafian
Article

Abstract

RF localization science and technology started with the global positioning systems for outdoor areas, and it then transformed into wireless indoor geolocation. The next step in the evolution of this science is the transformation into RF localization inside the human body. The first major application for this technology is the localization of the wireless video capsule endoscope (VCE) that has been in the clinical arena for 12 years. While physicians can receive clear images of abnormalities in the gastrointestinal tract with VCE devices, they have little idea of their exact location inside the GI tract. To localize intestinal abnormalities, physicians routinely use radiological, endoscopic or surgical operations. If we could use the RF signal radiated from the capsule to also locate these devices, not only can physicians discover medical problems, but they can also learn where the problems are located. However, finding a realistic RF localization solution for the endoscopy capsule is a very challenging task, because the inside of the human body is a difficult environment for experimentation and visualization. In addition, we have no-idea how the capsule moves and rotates in its 3D journey in this non-homogeneous medium for radio propagation. In this paper, we describe how we can design a cyber physical system (CPS) for experimental testing and visualization of interior of the human body that can be used for solving the RF localization problem for the endoscopy capsule. We also address the scientific challenges that face and the appropriate technical approaches for solving this problem.

Keywords

Capsule endoscopy In-body radio propagation Localization algorithms Security and reliability Virtual visualization Gastrointestinal tract Body area networks Sensor networks 

References

  1. 1.
    K. Pahlavan, Wireless communications for office information networks, IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 19–27, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. J. Marcus, Recent U.S. regulatory decisions on civil use of spread spectrum, Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM ‘85, New Orleans, LA, 16.6.1–16.6.3 (Dec. 1985).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. Pahlavan and P. Krishnamurthy, Principles of Wireless Networks—A Unified Approach, Prentice HallUpper Saddle River, NJ, 2002.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. Faigel and D. Cave, Video Capsule Endoscopy, Co-editors; 2008, Elsevier.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. Fu, Y. Ye, K. Pahlavan, and N. Yang, Doppler spread analysis of human motions for body area network applications, 22nd Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC 2011, 11–14 September, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. Fu, Y. Ye, N. Yang, and K. Pahlavan, Characteristic and modeling of human body motions for body area network applications, invited paper, Wireless Health Special Issue based on best papers presented at IEEE PIMRC’11, International Journal of Wireless Information Networks, Vol. 19, No. 3, August 2012 (in press).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. Valdastri, R. J. Webster, C. Quaglia, M. Quirini, A. Menciassi, and P. Dario, A new mechanism for mesoscale legged locomotion in compliant tubular environments, IEEE Transactions on Robotics, Vol. 25, No. 5, pp. 1047–1057, doi: 10.1109/TRO.2009.2014127,Oct.2009.
  8. 8.
    D. Cave, Wireless video capsule endoscopy, the 1st Invitational Workshop on Body Area Network Technology and Applications, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, June 19–20, 2011.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. Pahlavan, X. Li and J.-P. Mäkelä, Indoor geolocation science and technology, IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 112–118, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Pahlavan, Y. Ye, U. Khan and R. Fu, Challenges in channel measurement and modeling for RF localization inside the human body, keynote speech, IEEE Localization and GNSS (ICL-GNSS) International Conference, Tampere, Finland, June 2011.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. A. Assad, A real-time laboratory testbed for evaluating localization performance of WIFI RFID technologies, MS Thesis Supervised by K. Pahlavan, ECE Department, WPI, 2007.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. He, S. Li, K. Pahlavan, and Q. Wang, A realtime testbed for performance evaluation of indoor TOA location system, IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC 2012), Ottawa, Canada, June 10–15, 2012.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Heidari and K. Pahlavan, Performance evaluation of indoor geolocation systems using PROPSim hardware and ray tracing software, IWWAN, pp. 351–355, Oulu, Finland, June, 2004.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Heidari, A testbed for real-time performance evaluation of RSS-based indoor geolocation systems in laboratory environment, MS Thesis supervised by K. Pahlavan, ECE Department, WPI, 2005.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Li, J. He, R. Fu, and K. Pahlavan, A hardware platform for performance evaluation of in-body sensors, 6th IEEE International Symposium on Medical Information and Communication Technology (ISMICT), San Diego, CA, March 26–29, 2012.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. Sayrafian-Pour, W. B. Yang, J. Hagedorn, J. Terrill, K. Y. Yazdandoost and K. Hamaguchi, Channel Models for Medical Implant Communication, International Journal of Wireless Information Networks Vol. 17, No. 3–4, pp. 105–112, 2010.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    K. Sayrafian-Pour, W. B. Yang, J. Hagedorn, J. Terrill, K. Y. Yazdandoost, A statistical path loss model for medical implant communication channels, IEEE PIMRC, pp. 2995–2999, Tokyo, Japan, September 2009.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    D. Cave, D. Fleischer, J. Leighton, D. Faigel, R. Heigh, V. Sharma, C. Gostout, E. Rajan, K. Mergener, A. Foley, M. Lee and K. Bhattacharya, A multi-center randomized comparison of the endocapsule and the Pillcam SB, Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Vol. 68, No. 3, pp. 487–494, 2008. Epub, Apr 14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    G. Ciuti, P. Valdastri, A. Menciassi and P. Dario, Robotic magnetic steering and locomotion of capsule endoscope for diagnostic and surgical endoluminal procedures, Robotica, Vol. 28, pp. 199–207, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Y. Ye, U. Khan, N. Alsindi, R. Fu, and K. Pahlavan, On the accuracy of RF positioning in multi-capsule endoscopy, 22nd Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), pp. 2173–2177, Toronto, Canada, September 2011.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Y. Ye, P. Swar, and K. Pahlavan, Accuracy of RSS-based RF localization in multi-capsule endoscopy, invited paper, Wireless Health special issue based on best papers presented at IEEE PIMRC’11, International Journal of Wireless Information Networks, Vol. 19, No. 3, August 2012, (submitted).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    K. Pahlavan, N. Al-Sindi, and B. Alavi, Precise node localization in sensor ad-hoc networks, Patent # 8005486, issued on Aug 23, 2011.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    K. Pahlavan, Y. Ye, R. Fu, and U. Khan, Challenges in channel measurement and modeling for RF localization inside the human body, invited paper, Special issue on ICL-GNSS best papers, International Journal of Embedded and Real-Time Communication Systems (in the press).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    FCC Rules and Regulations, MedRadio Band Plan, Part 95, March 2009.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    K. Yazdandoost and K. Sayrafian-Pour, Channel Models for Body Area Networks, IEEE P802.15-08-0780-11-0006, September 2010.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    B. S. Lewis and P. Swain, Capsule endoscopy in the evaluation of patients with suspected small intestinal bleeding: results of a pilot study, GastrointestEndosc, Vol. 56, No. 3, pp. 349–353, 2002.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    G. Bao and K. Pahlavan, Modeling of the movement of the endoscopy capsule inside G.I. tract based on the captured endoscopy images, accepted for the International Conference on Modeling, Simulation and Visualization Methods, MSV’12, July 16–19, 2012, Las Vegas, USA.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    D. Morgan, B. Upchurch, P. Draganov, K. F. Binmoeller, O. Haluszka, S. Jonnalagadda, P. Okolo, I. Grimm, J. Judah, J. Tokar and M. Chiorean, Spiral enteroscopy: prospective U.S. multicenter study in patients with small-bowel disorders, Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Vol. 72, No. 5, pp. 992–998, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. Pohl, J. M. Blancas, D. Cave, K. Y. Choi, M. Delvaux, C. Ell, G. Gay, M. A. Jacobs, N. Marcon, T. Matsui, A. May, C. J. Mulder, M. Pennazio, E. Perez-Cuadrado, K. Sugano, P. Vilmann, H. Yamamoto, T. Yano, J. J. Zhong, Consensus report of the 2nd International Conference on double balloon endoscopy, Endoscopy, pp. 156–160, 2008.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    T. Aoyagi, K. Takizawa, T. Kobayashi, J. Takada, and R. Kohno, Development of a WBAN channel model for capsule endoscopy, Proceedings of 2009 International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation, Charleston, SC, USA, pp. 1–4, June 2009.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    D. Kurup, W. Joseph, G. Vermeeren, and L. Martens, Path loss model for in-body communication in homogeneous human muscle tissue, IET Electronics Letters, pp. 453–454, April 2009.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    F. Askarzadeh, Y. Ye, U. Khan, F. Akgul, K. Pahlavan, and S. Makarov, Computational methods for localization in close proximity, chapter in Position Location—Theory, Practice and Advances: A Handbook for Engineers and Academics, John Wiley and Sons, 2011.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    K. Sayrafian-Pour, W. B. Yang, J. Hagedorn, J. Terrill and K. Y. Yazdandoost, Channel models for medical implant communication, Special issue on BAN, International Journal of Wireless Information Networks, Vol. 17, No. 3–4, pp. 105–112, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    U. Khan, K. Pahlavan, and S. Makarov, Computational techniques for wireless body area networks channel simulation using FDTD and FEM at the 33rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), pp. 5602–5607, 2011.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    U. Khan, Computational techniques for comparative performance evaluation of RF localization inside the Human Body, MS Thesis supervised by K. Pahlavan, ECE Department, WPI, April 2011.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    P. Swar, K. Pahlavan, and U. Khan, Accuracy of localization system inside human body using a fast FDTD simulation technique, 6 th IEEE International Symposium on Medical Information and Communication Technology, La Jolla, CA, March, 2012.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    U. Khan and K. Pahlavan, A comparative study of computational techniques for RF localization inside the human body, submitted to The 34th Annual International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 2012 (under review).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    A. Sharf, T. Lewiner, A. Shamir and L. Kobbelt, On-the-fly curve-skeleton computation for 3D shapes, Computer Graphics Forum, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 323–328, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    B. Alavi and K. Pahlavan, Modeling of the TOA based distance measurement error using UWB indoor radio measurements, IEEE Communications Letters, pp. 275–277, April 2006.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    B. Alavi, Distance measurement error modeling for time-of-arrival based indoor geolocation, Ph.D. Dissertation, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 2006.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    NayefAlsindi, Indoor cooperative localization for ultra wideband wireless sensor networks, PhD Dissertation Supervised by K. Pahlavan, ECE Department, WPI, May 2008.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    K. Pahlavan, F. Akgul, and A. H. Levesque, Localization interface using WiFi, RFID Academic Convocation, Las Vegas, Nevada, May 2006.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Y. Ye, F.O. Akgul, N. Bardshady, and K. Pahlavan, Performance of hybrid WiFi localization for cooperative robotics applications, IEEE International Conference on Technologies for Practical Robot Applications, April 11–12, 2011.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    M. W. M. G. Dissanayake, P. Newman, S. Clark, H. F. Durrant-Whyte and M. Csorba, A solution to the simultaneous localization and map building (SLAM) problem, IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 229–241, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    X. Li and K. Pahlavan, Super-resolution TOA estimation with diversity for indoor geo-location, IEEE Transactions of Communications, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 224–234, 2004.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    S. N. Makarov, Directional in-quadrature orthogonal-coil antenna and an array thereof for localization purposes within a human body, Prov. Patent Appl. 61582812, filed Jan. 3rd 2012.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    S. N. Makarov, G. Noetscher, and L. C. Kempel, Directional in-quadrature orthogonal-coil antenna and an array thereof for localization purposes within a human body in the Fresnel region. Numerical simulations, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Jan. 2012, (under review).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    S. N. Makarov and G. Noetscher, Directional in-quadrature orthogonal-coil antenna and an array thereof for localization purposes within a human body in the fresnel region. numerical simulations, 2012 IEEE International Sym. on Antennas and Propagation and USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting, July 11–14th 2012, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    W. Lukosz and R. E. Kunz, Light emission by magnetic and electric dipoles close to a plane dielectric interface. II. Radiation patterns of perpendicular oriented dipoles, Journal of the Optical Society of America, Vol. 67, No. 12, pp. 1615–1619, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    G. S. Smith, Directive properties of antennas for transmission into a material half-space, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. AP-32, No. 3, pp. 232–246, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    J. R. Wait and D. A. Hill, Transient signals from a buried magnetic dipole, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 42, No. 10, pp. 3866–3869, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    K. Panyim, T. Hayajneh, P. Krishnamurthy, and D. Tipper, On limited-range strategic/random jamming attacks in wireless ad hoc networks, 5th IEEE LCN Workshop on Security in Communications Networks, pp. 922–929, October 2009.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    K. Panyim and P. Krishnamurthy, A hybrid key predistribution scheme for sensor networks employing spatial retreats to cope with jamming attacks, To Appear in Mobile Networks and Applications, Available Online (doi: 10.1007/s11036-010-0244-8), June 2010.
  54. 54.
    K. Pelechrinis, I. Broustis, S. V. Krishnamurthy, and C. Gkantsidis, A Measurement driven anti-jamming system for 802.11 networks, to appear in IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking. Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    T. Hayajneh, M. Razvi-Doomun, P. Krishnamurthy, and D. Tipper, Source-destination obfuscation in wireless ad hoc networks, Security and Communication Networks, Vol. 4, Issue 8, pp. 888–901, 2010.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    A. Aksu, P. Krishnamurthy, D. Tipper, and O. Ercetin, On security and reliability using cooperative transmissions in sensor networks, Mobile Networks and Applications, pp. 1–10, 2010 (accepted).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    D. Halperin, et al., Security and privacy for implantable medical devices, IEEE Pervasive Computing, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 30–39, 2008.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Pahlavan
    • 1
    Email author
  • G. Bao
    • 1
  • Y. Ye
    • 1
  • S. Makarov
    • 1
  • U. Khan
    • 1
  • P. Swar
    • 1
  • D. Cave
    • 2
  • A. Karellas
    • 2
  • P. Krishnamurthy
    • 3
  • K. Sayrafian
    • 4
  1. 1.Worcester Polytechnic InstituteWorcesterUSA
  2. 2.University of Massachusetts Medical SchoolWorcesterUSA
  3. 3.University of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  4. 4.National Institute of Standards and TechnologyGaithersburgUSA

Personalised recommendations