Energy Efficient Reliable Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks with Asymmetric Links

  • Ren P. Liu
  • Zvi Rosberg
  • Iain B. Collings
  • Carol Wilson
  • Alex Y. Dong
  • Sanjay Jha


Field measurements reveal that radio link asymmetry has a severe impact on reliable data delivery. We analyze the energy efficiencies of selected reliability schemes for asymmetric radio links using theoretical models. The analysis provides guidelines for retransmission control so as to balance between reliability and energy consumption. We also design two enhancements to the “implicit” ARQ scheme addressing the negative effects of asymmetric radio links. The energy efficiencies of these algorithms are explicitly derived using our theoretical model and validated by simulations and field trials. Based on the analysis of the two enhanced algorithms, we propose an improvement, referred to as Energy Efficient Reliable Data Collection (EERDC) that controls the retransmissions of the enhanced ARQ schemes. Simulations and field trials confirm our theoretical findings and demonstrate that our proposed EERDC algorithm alleviates the impact of link asymmetry and achieves energy savings.


Wireless sensor networks Energy efficiency Radio link asymmetry Implicit ARQ Reliability 


  1. 1.
    D. Ganesan, A. Cerpa, W. Ye, Y. Yu, J. Zhao, and D. Estrin, Networking issues in wireless sensor networks, Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing: Special Issues on Frontiers in Distributed Sensor Networks, Elsevier Publishers, July 2004.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. Le Dinh, W. Hu, P. Sikka, P. Corke, L. Overs, and S. Brosnan, Design and deployment of a remote robust sensor network: experiences from an outdoor water quality monitoring network, Second IEEE Workshop on Practical Issues in Building Sensor Network Applications (SenseApp 2007), Dublin, Ireland, 15th–18th October 2007.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. Wark, C. Crossman, W. Hu, Y. Guo, P. Valencia, P. Sikka, P. Corke, C. Lee, J. Henshall, J. O. Grady, M. Reed, and A. Fisher, The design and evaluation of a mobile sensor/actuator network for autonomous animal control, ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN), pp. 206–215, 2007.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. Ganesan, B. Krishnamachari, A. Woo, D. Culler, D. Estrin, and S. Wicker, Complex behavior at scale: an experimental study of low-power wireless sensor networks, Technical Report UCLA CSD-TR 02-0013, Center for Embedded Networked Sensing, UCLA and Intel Research Lab, UCB, February 2002.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Zhao and R. Govindan, Understanding packet delivery performance in dense wireless sensor networks, Proceedings of the 1st ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys’03), Los Angeles, CA, USA, pp. 1–13, November 2003.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. Zhou, T. He, S. Krishnamurthy, and J. A. Stankovic, Impact of radio irregularity on wireless sensor networks, Proceedings of the International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications and Services (Mobisys’04), Boston, MA, USA, pp. 125–138, 6–9 June 2004.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    K. Srinivasan, P. Dutta, A. Tavakoli, and P. Levis, Understanding the Causes of Packet Delivery Success and Failure in Dense Wireless Sensor Networks, Tech. Report SING-06-00, Stanford University, 2006.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Woo, T. Tong, and D. Culler, Taming the underlying challenges of reliable multihop routing in sensor networks, Proceedings of the 1st ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys’03), Los Angeles, CA, USA, pp. 14–27, November 2003.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Cerpa, J. L. Wong, M. Potkonjak, and D. Estrin, Temporal properties of low power wireless links: modeling and implications on multi-hop routing, MobiHoc’05, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA, pp. 414–425, May 2005.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Q. Cao, T. He, L. Fang, T. Abdelzaher, J. Stankovic, and S. Son, Efficiency centric communication model for wireless sensor networks, Proceedings of INFOCOM ‘06, April 2006.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Nath, P. B. Gibbons, S. Seshan, and Z. R. Anderson, Synopsis diffusion for robust aggregation in sensor networks, SenSys ’04, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, November, 2004.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. Stann and J. Heidemann, RMST: reliable data transport in sensor networks, 1st IEEE International Workshop on Sensor Net Protocols and Applications (SNPA), Anchorage, Alaska, May 2003.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C.-Y. Wan, A. Campbell, and L. Krishnamerthy, PSFQ: a reliable transport protocol for wireless sensor networks, ACM WSNA ’02, Atlanta, September 2002.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. S. J. De Couto, D. Aguayo, J. Bicket, and R. Morris, A high-throughput path metric for multi-hop wireless routing, Proceedings of MOBICOM 2003, San Diego, 2003.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Woo, T. Tong, and D. Culler, Taming the underlying challenges of reliable multihop routing in sensor networks. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys 2003), 2003.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    O. Akan and I. Akyildiz, Event-to-sink reliable transport in wireless sensor networks, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol. 13, No. 5, 2005.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. P. Liu, J. Zic, I. B. Collings, A. Y. Dong, and S. Jha, Efficient reliable data collection in wireless sensor networks, IEEE VTC2008-fall, Calgary, Canada, September 2008.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. P. Liu, Z. Rosberg, I. B. Collings, C. Wilson, A. Y. Dong, and S. Jha, Overcoming radio link asymmetry in wireless sensor networks, IEEE PIMRC2008, Cannes, France, September 2008.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
  22. 22.
    K. Srinivasan and P. Levis, RSSI is under appreciated, Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Embedded Networked Sensors (EmNets 2006), Boston, MA, May 2006.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    R. Bellman, Dynamic Programming, Courier Dover Publications, 2003.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ren P. Liu
    • 1
  • Zvi Rosberg
    • 1
  • Iain B. Collings
    • 1
  • Carol Wilson
    • 1
  • Alex Y. Dong
    • 2
  • Sanjay Jha
    • 2
  1. 1.ICT Centre, CSIROSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.University of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations