International Journal of Theoretical Physics

, Volume 58, Issue 11, pp 3828–3851 | Cite as

An LSB-Based Quantum Audio Watermarking Using MSB as Arbiter

  • Mohsen Yoosefi Nejad
  • Mohammad MoslehEmail author
  • Saeed Rasouli Heikalabad


With the extension of digital multimedia into quantum computation and quantum networks, copyright protection of digital multimedia in quantum networks becomes a significant issue. As an important security technology, quantum watermarking is an appropriate solution, which embeds copyright information into the host signal. Up to now, several methods have been proposed for quantum image watermarking, while there are a few achievements in the domain of quantum audio watermarking. This work presents a least significant qubit (LSB) based audio watermarking which employs the most significant qubit to determine the qubit position for embedding. In the proposed scheme, the watermark image is first scrambled using a new scrambling method presented in this paper. The scrambled image is then converted into a qubit sequence, and the qubits are embedded into host quantum audio signal using an embedding key. For every procedure of the proposed scheme, the quantum circuit and complexity analysis is presented. Experimental results prove that the proposed scheme is good in terms of robustness, capacity and security.


Quantum audio watermarking Quantum audio processing Least-significant-bit Image scrambling 



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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Engineering, Dezful BranchIslamic Azad UniversityDezfulIran
  2. 2.Department of Computer Engineering, Tabriz BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTabrizIran

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