Multi-Party Quantum Key Agreement Protocol with Bell States and Single Particles

  • Hao-Nan Liu
  • Xiang-Qian Liang
  • Dong-Huan Jiang
  • Yong-Hua Zhang
  • Guang-Bao XuEmail author


Liu et al. [Quantum Inf. Process. 12, 1797–1805 (2013)] proposed a multi-party quantum key agreement (QKA) protocol based on single particles. Their protocol can resist outsider and participant attacks. However, its qubit efficiency is low. Min et al. [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 57, 1811–1822 (2018)] put forward a multi-party QKA protocol by using G-Like states and Bell states, which has high qubit efficiency, but it cannot resist the participant attack. In this paper, combining the advantages of the two protocols, we present a multi-party QKA protocol with Bell states and single particles. The protocol can guarantee that each party has an equal opportunity to influence the final shared key and no one can determine the final key alone. Furthermore, the efficiency analysis shows that our multi-party QKA protocol is very efficient.


Quantum key agreement Multi-party Quantum entangled state 



This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61402265) and the Fund for Postdoctoral Application Research Project of Qingdao (01020120607).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hao-Nan Liu
    • 1
  • Xiang-Qian Liang
    • 1
  • Dong-Huan Jiang
    • 1
  • Yong-Hua Zhang
    • 2
  • Guang-Bao Xu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Mathematics and Systems ScienceShandong University of Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina
  2. 2.College of Computer Science and EngineeringShandong University of Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina

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