International Journal of Theoretical Physics

, Volume 47, Issue 11, pp 2862–2874 | Cite as

Bell’s Theorem, Many Worlds and Backwards-Time Physics: Not Just a Matter of Interpretation

  • Paul J. Werbos
Open Access


The classic “Bell’s Theorem” of Clauser, Holt, Shimony and Horne tells us that we must give up at least one of: (1) objective reality (aka “hidden variables”); (2) locality; or (3) time-forwards macroscopic statistics (aka “causality”). The orthodox Copenhagen version of physics gives up the first. The many-worlds theory of Everett and Wheeler gives up the second. The backwards-time theory of physics (BTP) gives up the third. Contrary to conventional wisdom, empirical evidence strongly favors Everett-Wheeler over orthodox Copenhagen. BTP allows two major variations—a many-worlds version and a neoclassical version based on Partial Differential Equations (PDE), in the spirit of Einstein. Section 2 of this paper discusses the origins of quantum measurement according to BTP, focusing on the issue of how we represent condensed matter objects like polarizers in a model “Bell’s Theorem” experiment. The backwards time telegraph (BTT) is not ruled out in BTP, but is highly speculative for now, as will be discussed.


Bell’s theorem Local realism Many worlds Retrocausality Quantum measurement Klyshko SPDC-2 Markhov random fields 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Quantum, Molecular and High Performance Modeling program, Engineering DirectorateNational Science FoundationArlingtonUSA

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