Advertisement

Countering Statistical Attacks in Cloud-Based Searchable Encryption

  • M. A. Manazir Ahsan
  • Ihsan AliEmail author
  • Mohd Yamani Idna Bin Idris
  • Muhammad Imran
  • Muhammad Shoaib
Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Special Issue on Emerging Technology for Software Defined Network Enabled Internet of Things

Abstract

Searchable encryption (SE) is appearing as a prominent solution in the intersection of privacy protection and efficient retrieval of data outsourced to cloud computing storage. While it preserves privacy by encrypting data, yet supports search operation without data leakage. Due to its applicability, many research communities have proposed different SE schemes under various security definitions with numerous customary features (i.e. multi keyword search, ranked search). However, by reason of multi-keyword ranked search, SE discloses encrypted document list corresponding to multiple (secure) query keywords (or trapdoor). Such disclosure of statistical information helps an attacker to analyze and deduce the content of the data. To counter statistical information leakage in SE, we propose a scheme referred to as Countering Statistical Attack in Cloud based Searchable Encryption (CSA-CSE) that resorts to randomness in all components of an SE. CSA-CSE adopts inverted index that is built with a hash digest of a pair of keywords. Unlike existing schemes, ranking factors (i.e. relevance scores) rank the documents and then they no longer exist in the secure index (neither in order preserving encrypted form). Query keywords are also garbled with randomness in order to hide actual query/result statistics. Our security analysis and experiment on request for comments database ensure the security and efficiency of CSA-CSE.

Keywords

Cloud computing Security Searchable encryption Statistical attack Multi keyword ranked search 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research work was partially supported by the Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya under a special allocation of the Post Graduate Fund for RP036 (A, B, C)-15AET project. This work is also supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University through Research Group number RG-1435-051.

References

  1. 1.
    Armbrust, M., Fox, A., Griffith, R., Joseph, A.D., Katz, R., Konwinski, A., et al.: A view of cloud computing. Commun. ACM 53, 50–58 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Radu, L.-D.: Green cloud computing: a literature survey. Symmetry 9, 295 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Takabi, H., Joshi, J.B., Ahn, G.-J.: Security and privacy challenges in cloud computing environments. IEEE Secur. Priv. 8, 24–31 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhou, Y., Zhang, D., Xiong, N.: Post-cloud computing paradigms: a survey and comparison. Tsinghua Sci. Technol. 22, 714–732 (2017)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yaqoob, I., Ahmed, E., Ur Rehman, M.H., Ahmed, A.I.A., Al-garadi, M.A., Imran, M., et al.: The rise of ransomware and emerging security challenges in the Internet of Things. Comput. Netw. 129, 444–458 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Feng, D.-G., Zhang, M., Zhang, Y., Xu, Z.: Study on cloud computing security. J. Softw. 22, 71–83 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kamara, S., Lauter K.: Cryptographic cloud storage. In: International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security, pp. 136–149 (2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ali, M., Khan, S.U., Vasilakos, A.V.: Security in cloud computing: opportunities and challenges. Inf. Sci. 305, 357–383 (2015)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fernandes, D.A., Soares, L.F., Gomes, J.V., Freire, M.M., Inácio, P.R.: Security issues in cloud environments: a survey. Int. J. Inf. Secur. 13, 113–170 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wang, T., Zhou, J., Chen, X., Wang, G., Liu, A., Liu, Y.: A Three-layer privacy preserving cloud storage scheme based on computational intelligence in fog computing. IEEE Trans. Emerg. Top. Comput. Intell. 2, 3–12 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Han, F., Qin, J., Hu, J.: Secure searches in the cloud: a survey. Future Gener. Comput. Syst. 62, 66–75 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Au, M.H., Liang, K., Liu, J.K., Lu, R., Ning, J.: Privacy-preserving personal data operation on mobile cloud—chances and challenges over advanced persistent threat. Future Gener. Comput. Syst. 79, 337–349 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fu, Z., Ren, K., Shu, J., Sun, X., Huang, F.: Enabling personalized search over encrypted outsourced data with efficiency improvement. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 27, 2546–2559 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Xu, P., Jin, H., Wu, Q., Wang, W.: Public-key encryption with fuzzy keyword search: a provably secure scheme under keyword guessing attack. IEEE Trans. Comput. 62, 2266–2277 (2013)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Singhal, A.: Modern information retrieval: a brief overview. IEEE Data Eng. Bull. 24, 35–43 (2001)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Berger, A., Lafferty, J.: Information retrieval as statistical translation. In: ACM SIGIR Forum, pp. 219–226 (2017)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Witten, I.H., Moffat, A., Bell, T.C.: Managing Gigabytes: Compressing and Indexing Documents and Images. Morgan Kaufmann, Burlington (1999)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cao, N., Wang, C., Li, M., Ren, K., Lou, W.: Privacy-preserving multi-keyword ranked search over encrypted cloud data. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 25, 222–233 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fu, Z., Sun, X., Linge, N., Zhou, L.: Achieving effective cloud search services: multi-keyword ranked search over encrypted cloud data supporting synonym query. IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 60, 164–172 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jiang, X., Yu, J., Yan, J., Hao, R.: Enabling efficient and verifiable multi-keyword ranked search over encrypted cloud data. Inf. Sci. 403, 22–41 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li, H., Liu, D., Dai, Y., Luan, T.H., Shen, X.S.: Enabling efficient multi-keyword ranked search over encrypted mobile cloud data through blind storage. IEEE Trans. Emerg. Top. Comput. 3, 127–138 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sun, W., Wang, B., Cao, N., Li, M., Lou, W., Hou, Y.T., et al.: Verifiable privacy-preserving multi-keyword text search in the cloud supporting similarity-based ranking. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 25, 3025–3035 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Xia, Z., Wang, X., Sun, X., Wang, Q.: A secure and dynamic multi-keyword ranked search scheme over encrypted cloud data. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 27, 340–352 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yao, B., Li, F., Xiao, X.: Secure nearest neighbor revisited. In: 2013 IEEE 29th International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE), pp. 733–744 (2013)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Swaminathan, A., Mao, Y., Su, G.-M., Gou, H., Varna, A.L., He, S., et al.: Confidentiality-preserving rank-ordered search. In: Proceedings of the 2007 ACM Workshop on Storage Security and Survivability, pp. 7–12 (2007)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang, C., Cao, N., Ren, K., Lou, W.: Enabling secure and efficient ranked keyword search over outsourced cloud data. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 23, 1467–1479 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zerr, S., Olmedilla, D., Nejdl, W., Siberski, W.: Zerber + r: top-k retrieval from a confidential index. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Extending Database Technology: Advances in Database Technology, pp. 439–449 (2009)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Boldyreva, A., Chenette, N., Lee, Y., O’neill, A.: Order-preserving symmetric encryption. In: Eurocrypt, pp. 224–241 (2009)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Boldyreva, A., Chenette, N., O’Neill, A.: Order-preserving encryption revisited: improved security analysis and alternative solutions. In: CRYPTO, pp. 578–595 (2011)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang, G., Liu, C., Dong, Y., Choo, K.-K.R., Han, P., Pan, H., et al.: Leakage models and inference attacks on searchable encryption for cyber-physical social systems. IEEE Access 6, 21828–21839 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Abdalla, M., Bellare, M., Catalano, D., Kiltz, E., Kohno, T., Lange, T., et al.: Searchable encryption revisited: consistency properties, relation to anonymous IBE, and extensions. J. Cryptol. 21, 350–391 (2008)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chang, Y.-C., Mitzenmacher, M.: Privacy preserving keyword searches on remote encrypted data. In: International Conference on Applied Cryptography and Network Security, pp. 442–455 (2005)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Curtmola, R., Garay, J., Kamara, S., Ostrovsky, R.: Searchable symmetric encryption: improved definitions and efficient constructions. J. Comput. Secur. 19, 895–934 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Goh, E.-J: Secure indexes. In: IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, 2003, vol. 216 (2003)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Song, D.X., Wagner, D., Perrig, A.: Practical techniques for searches on encrypted data. In: 2000 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 2000. S&P 2000. Proceedings, pp. 44–55 (2000)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Baek, J., Safavi-Naini, R., Susilo, W.: Public key encryption with keyword search revisited. In: Computational Science and Its Applications—ICCSA 2008, pp. 1249–1259 (2008)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Boneh, D., Di Crescenzo, G., Ostrovsky, R., Persiano, G.: Public key encryption with keyword search. In: International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, pp. 506–522 (2004)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rhee, H.S., Park, J.H., Susilo, W., Lee, D.H.: Trapdoor security in a searchable public-key encryption scheme with a designated tester. J. Syst. Softw. 83, 763–771 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fu, Z., Wu, X., Guan, C., Sun, X., Ren, K.: Toward efficient multi-keyword fuzzy search over encrypted outsourced data with accuracy improvement. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur. 11, 2706–2716 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wong, W.K., Cheung, D.W.-l., Kao, B., Mamoulis, N.: Secure knn computation on encrypted databases. In: Proceedings of the 2009 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, pp. 139–152 (2009)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Guo, C., Chen, X., Jie, Y., Zhangjie, F., Li, M., Feng, B.: Dynamic multi-phrase ranked search over encrypted data with symmetric searchable encryption. IEEE Trans. Serv. Comput. (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1109/TSC.2017.2768045 Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sun, W., Wang, B., Cao, N., Li, M., Lou, W., Hou, Y.T., et al.: Privacy-preserving multi-keyword text search in the cloud supporting similarity-based ranking. In: Proceedings of the 8th ACM SIGSAC Symposium on Information, Computer and Communications Security, pp. 71–82 (2013)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Delfs, H., Knebl, H., Knebl, H.: Introduction to Cryptography, vol. 2. Springer, Berlin (2002)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Agrawal, R., Kiernan, J., Srikant, R., Xu, Y.: Order preserving encryption for numeric data. In: Proceedings of the 2004 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, pp. 563–574 (2004)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bellare, M., Canetti, R., Krawczyk, H.: Keying hash functions for message authentication. In: Annual International Cryptology Conference, pp. 1–15 (1996)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    (25/12/2017) Request for Comments. https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc-index.html
  47. 47.
    Jeong, I.R., Kwon, J.O., Hong, D., Lee, D.H.: Constructing PEKS schemes secure against keyword guessing attacks is possible? Comput. Commun. 32, 394–396 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer System and Technology, Faculty of Computer Science and Information TechnologyUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.College of Computer and Information SciencesKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations