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International Journal of Parallel Programming

, Volume 44, Issue 5, pp 1078–1098 | Cite as

Exploiting Significance of Computations for Energy-Constrained Approximate Computing

  • Vassilis VassiliadisEmail author
  • Charalampos Chalios
  • Konstantinos Parasyris
  • Christos D. Antonopoulos
  • Spyros Lalis
  • Nikolaos Bellas
  • Hans Vandierendonck
  • Dimitrios S. Nikolopoulos
Article

Abstract

Approximate execution is a viable technique for environments with energy constraints, provided that applications are given the mechanisms to produce outputs of the highest possible quality within the available energy budget. This paper introduces a framework for energy-constrained execution with controlled and graceful quality loss. A simple programming model allows developers to structure the computation in different tasks, and to express the relative importance of these tasks for the quality of the end result. For non-significant tasks, the developer can also supply less costly, approximate versions. The target energy consumption for a given execution is specified when the application is launched. A significance-aware runtime system employs an application-specific analytical energy model to decide how many cores to use for the execution, the operating frequency for these cores, as well as the degree of task approximation, so as to maximize the quality of the output while meeting the user-specified energy constraints. Evaluation on a dual-socket 16-core Intel platform using 9 kernels and applications shows that the proposed framework performs very close to an oracle always selecting the optimal configuration, both in terms of energy efficiency and quality of results. Also, a comparison with loop perforation (a well-known compile-time approximation technique), shows that the proposed framework results in significantly higher quality for the same energy budget.

Keywords

Approximate computing Significance Energy efficiency Modeling 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work has been partially supported by: (a) The European Commission’s 7th Framework Programme (FP7/2007– 2013) under grant agreements FP7-323872 (Project “SCoRPiO”) and FP7-327744 (NovoSoft, Marie Curie Actions), (b) The “Aristeia II” action (grant agreement 5211, project “Centaurus” of the operational program Education and Lifelong Learning which is co-funded by the European Social Fund and Greek national resources, and (c) The UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council under grant agreement EP/L000055/1 (ALEA).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vassilis Vassiliadis
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Charalampos Chalios
    • 3
  • Konstantinos Parasyris
    • 1
    • 2
  • Christos D. Antonopoulos
    • 1
    • 2
  • Spyros Lalis
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nikolaos Bellas
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hans Vandierendonck
    • 3
  • Dimitrios S. Nikolopoulos
    • 3
  1. 1.University of ThessalyVolosGreece
  2. 2.Centre for Research and Technology HellasThessalonikiGreece
  3. 3.Queen’s University of BelfastBelfastUnited Kingdom

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