International Journal of Parallel Programming

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 85–116

Tolerating Radiation-Induced Transient Faults in Modern Processors

Open Access

DOI: 10.1007/s10766-009-0114-9

Cite this article as:
Li, X. & Gaudiot, JL. Int J Parallel Prog (2010) 38: 85. doi:10.1007/s10766-009-0114-9


As MOS device sizes continue shrinking, lower charges, for example those charges carried by single ionizing particles of naturally occurring radiation, are sufficient to upset the functioning of complex modern microprocessors. In order to handle these inevitable errors, designs should include fault-tolerant features so that the processors can continue to correctly perform despite the occurrence of errors. The main goal of this work is to develop architecture mechanisms to protect processors against the effect of such radiation-induced transient faults. It should first be noted that, from a program execution perspective, many faults manifest themselves as control flow errors that cause processors to violate the correct sequencing of instructions. We present here at first a basic compile-time signature assignment algorithm and describe a novel approach to improve the fault detection coverage of the basic algorithm. Moreover, to allow the processor to efficiently check the run-time sequence and detect control flow errors, we introduce an on-chip assigned-signature checker which is capable of executing three additional instructions (SIC, SIJ, SIJC). Second, since the very concept of simultaneous multi-threading (SMT) provides the necessary redundancy, some proposals have been made to run two copies of the same thread on top of SMT platforms in order to detect and correct soft errors. This allows, upon detection of an error, the rolling back of the processor state to a known safe point, and then a retry of the instructions, thereby effecting a completely error-free execution. This paper has focused on two crucial implementation issues introduced by this scheme: (1) the design trade-off between the fault detection coverage versus design costs; (2) the possible occurrence of deadlock situations.


Soft-error Computer architecture Fault-tolerant Control flow checking Multi-threading 

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Enterprise Microprocessor GroupIntel CorporationSanta ClaraUSA
  2. 2.Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer ScienceUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA

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