Combined Thermodynamic Description and Experimental Investigation of the Ternary Ag–Bi–Ge System

  • Dušan Milisavljević
  • Duško Minić
  • Milena PremovićEmail author
  • Dragan Manasijević
  • Vladan Ćosović
  • Nebojša Košanin


In this study, the phase diagram of the ternary Ag–Bi–Ge system was thermodynamically assessed and experimentally investigated, which to our knowledge has not been previously done. Differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were applied in order to experimentally assess three vertical sections and two isothermal sections at 200 °C and 400 °C of the Ag–Bi–Ge system. Results of the SEM–EDS and XRD analysis revealed existence of (Ge), (Ag) and (Bi) solid solution phases and absence of any ternary phases. Crystal structures of the identified phases and their corresponding lattice parameters were determined by XRD technique. Phase transition temperatures, including liquidus, solidus and temperature of an invariant reaction, were determined by means of DTA. Thermodynamic calculation of the Ag–Bi–Ge ternary phase diagram was carried out on the basis of optimized thermodynamic parameters for the constitutive binary systems acquired from the literature. Calculated liquidus projection of the Ag–Bi–Ge system and the determined invariant reactions are presented in the study as well. A close mutual agreement between the experimental results and the calculated phase equilibria was obtained.


Annealing Phase transformation Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) X-ray diffraction (XRD) 



This work has been supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia under Project ON172037.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Technical SciencesUniversity of PrištinaKosovska MitrovicaSerbia
  2. 2.Technical Faculty in BorUniversity of BelgradeBorSerbia
  3. 3.Institute of Chemistry, Technology and MetallurgyUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  4. 4.Teaching Center Mitrovo PoljeMinistry of Internal AffairsBelgradeSerbia

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