Development of Maximum Bubble Pressure Method for Surface Tension Measurement of High Viscosity Molten Silicate

  • Osamu TakedaEmail author
  • Hirone Iwamoto
  • Ryota Sakashita
  • Chiaki Iseki
  • Hongmin Zhu
Asian Thermophysical Properties Conference Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Asian Thermophysical Properties Conference Papers


A surface tension measurement method based on the maximum bubble pressure (MBP) method was developed in order to precisely determine the surface tension of molten silicates in this study. Specifically, the influence of viscosity on surface tension measurements was quantified, and the criteria for accurate measurement were investigated. It was found that the MBP apparently increased with an increase in viscosity. This was because extra pressure was required for the flowing liquid inside the capillary due to viscous resistance. It was also expected that the extra pressure would decrease by decreasing the fluid velocity. For silicone oil with a viscosity of \(1000\,\hbox {mPa}{\cdot }\hbox {s}\), the error on the MBP could be decreased to +1.7 % by increasing the bubble detachment time to \(300\,\hbox {s}\). However, the error was still over 1 % even when the bubble detachment time was increased to \(600\,\hbox {s}\). Therefore, a true value of the MBP was determined by using a curve-fitting technique with a simple relaxation function, and that was succeeded for silicone oil at \(1000\,\hbox {mPa}{\cdot } \hbox {s}\) of viscosity. Furthermore, for silicone oil with a viscosity as high as \(10\,000\,\hbox {mPa}{\cdot }\hbox {s}\), the apparent MBP approached a true value by interrupting the gas introduction during the pressure rising period and by re-introducing the gas at a slow flow rate. Based on the fundamental investigation at room temperature, the surface tension of the \(\hbox {SiO}_{2}\)–40 \(\hbox {mol}\%\hbox {Na}_{2}\hbox {O}\) and \(\hbox {SiO}_{2}\)–50 \(\hbox {mol}\%\hbox {Na}_{2}\hbox {O}\) melts was determined at a high temperature. The obtained value was slightly lower than the literature values, which might be due to the influence of viscosity on surface tension measurements being removed in this study.


Maximum bubble pressure method Silicate Surface tension Viscosity 



The authors are grateful to Dr. Hirofumi Tokunaga in Asahi Glass Co., Ltd. for the valuable discussions throughout this study. This work was financially supported by the Grant for fundamental research from the Advanced Research and Education Center for Steel (ARECS) of Tohoku University.


  1. 1.
    J. Yamaguchi, T. Nakajima, T. Sawai, Technical Report of Nippon Steel, vol. 12, p. 394 (2012)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Hanao, Ph.D. Thesis, Osaka University (2007)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    K.C. Mills, in Slag Atlas, 2nd edn., ed. by Verein Deutscher Eisenhüttenleute (Verlag Stahleisen GmbH, Düsseldorf, 1995), pp. 406–408Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. Ejima, E. Nakamura, J. Jpn. Inst. Metals 39, 680 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A.W. Adamson, Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, 6th edn. (Wiley, Hoboken, 1997)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    T. Iida, R.I.L. Guthrie, The Physical Properties of Liquid Metals (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1988), pp. 116–117Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    C.P. Hollowell, D.E. Hirt, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 168, 281 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. Nakae, T. Fukui, Mater. Trans. 42, 2422 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    G. Schrödinger, Ann. Physik. 46, 413 (1915)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Nishijima, M. Aono, S. Saskurada, O. Takeda, Y. Sato, in Proceedings of 30th Japan Symposium on Thermophysical Properties (Yamagata, 2009), pp. 169–171Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Kalová, R. Mareš, Int. J. Thermophys. 36, 1396 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    K.F. Herzfeld, T.A. Litovits, Absorption and Dispersion of Ultrasonic Waves (Academic Press, New York, 1959)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    K.C. Mills, in Slag Atlas, 2nd edn., ed. by V.D. Eisenhüttenleute (Verlag Stahleisen GmbH, Düsseldorf, 1995), p. 361Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    L. Shartsis, S. Spinner, J. Res. NBS 46, 385 (1951)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A.A. Appen, S.S. Kayalova, Doklad. Akad. Nauk SSSR 145, 592 (1962)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tohoku UniversitySendaiJapan

Personalised recommendations