Absolute Radiation Thermometry in the NIR

  • L. BüngerEmail author
  • R. D. Taubert
  • B. Gutschwager
  • K. Anhalt
  • S. Briaudeau
  • M. Sadli


A near infrared (NIR) radiation thermometer (RT) for temperature measurements in the range from 773 K up to 1235 K was characterized and calibrated in terms of the “Mise en Pratique for the definition of the Kelvin” (MeP-K) by measuring its absolute spectral radiance responsivity. Using Planck’s law of thermal radiation allows the direct measurement of the thermodynamic temperature independently of any ITS-90 fixed-point. To determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity of the radiation thermometer in the NIR spectral region, an existing PTB monochromator-based calibration setup was upgraded with a supercontinuum laser system (0.45 \(\upmu \hbox {m}\) to 2.4 \(\upmu \hbox {m}\)) resulting in a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio. The RT was characterized with respect to its nonlinearity, size-of-source effect, distance effect, and the consistency of its individual temperature measuring ranges. To further improve the calibration setup, a new tool for the aperture alignment and distance measurement was developed. Furthermore, the diffraction correction as well as the impedance correction of the current-to-voltage converter is considered. The calibration scheme and the corresponding uncertainty budget of the absolute spectral responsivity are presented. A relative standard uncertainty of 0.1 % \((k=1)\) for the absolute spectral radiance responsivity was achieved. The absolute radiometric calibration was validated at four temperature values with respect to the ITS-90 via a variable temperature heatpipe blackbody (773 K ...1235 K) and at a gold fixed-point blackbody radiator (1337.33 K).


Absolute spectral radiance responsivity Mise en pratique Primary thermometry Radiation thermometer Supercontinuum laser 

List of symbols


Geometric factor


International temperature scale of 1990


Current-to-voltage converter


Large-area black body (PTB double-heatpipe blackbody)


Mise en pratique for the definition of the Kelvin


Linear pyrometer 5




Platinum resistance thermometer


Radiation thermometer


Size-of-source effect

\(\alpha \)

Horizontal angle of the tilted reference detector

\(\phi _0\)

Radiant flux

\(\varepsilon \)

Emissivity of an object

\(\varepsilon _\mathrm{{A2}}\)

Transfer detector component of diffraction correction

\(\varepsilon _\mathrm{{A1}}\)

Source component of diffraction correction

\(\varepsilon _\mathrm{{A1+A2}}\)

Factor of the diffraction correction


Open-loop-gain of the operation amplifier (IUC)


First radiation constant


Second radiation constant

\(C_{\text {bandwidth effect}}\)

Uncertainty component of the bandwidth effect

\(C_{\text{ range }}\)

Range matching factor of the measurement ranges of the RT


Blackened aperture with a diameter of x


Distance between two apertures

\(d_{\text{ dg1 }}\)

Relative distance change measured by precision dial gauge 1

\(d_{\text{ dg2 }}\)

Relative distance change measured by precision dial gauge 2

\(d_{\text{ offset }}\)

Uncertainty component of the distance measurement (caliper)

\(d_{\text{ SL }}\)

Distance measured by caliper

\(f_{\text{ SSE }}\)

Correction factor for different source diameters

\(f_{\text{ IUC }}\)

Impedance correction factor

\(I_{\text{ ref }}\)

Photocurrent of the transfer detector

\(I_{\text{ ref,ds }}\)

Dark signal of the transfer detector

\(I_{\text{ RT }}\)

Photocurrent of the radiation thermometer

\(I_{\text{ RT,ds }}\)

Dark signal of the radiation thermometer

\(P_{\text{ total }}\)

Electrical power


First measurement range of the radiation thermometer


Second measurement range of the radiation thermometer

\(R_{\text{ IU }}\)

Feedback resistor of current-to-voltage converter

\(R_{\text{ ref. } \text{ detector }}\)

Shunt resistance of transfer detector


Radius of a aperture located at the integrating sphere


Radius of a aperture located at the transfer detector

\(s_{\text{ ref }}^\phi \)

Absolute spectral power responsivity

\(s_{\text{ RT }}^L\)

Absolute spectral radiance responsivity

\(s_{\text{ ref }}^E\)

Absolute spectral irradiance responsivity

\(T_{\text{90 }}\)

Temperature according to the ITS-90

\(T_{\text{ rad }}\)

Thermodynamic temperature

\(U_{\text{ ref. } \text{ det. }}\)

Voltage of the amplified and converted photocurrent of the transfer detector

\(U_{\text{ ref. } \text{ det.,ds }}\)

Dark signal of the amplified and converted photocurrent of the transfer detector



This work was funded by the European Association of National Metrology (EURAMET) in the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) SIB010 NOTED. The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union. The authors wish to thank P. Meindl for calibrating the transfer detector, E. Kosubek for calibrating the precision apertures, and M. Becker for the ITS-90 calibration at the German standard for radiation thermometry (773 K  to  1235 K).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Bünger
    • 1
    Email author
  • R. D. Taubert
    • 1
  • B. Gutschwager
    • 1
  • K. Anhalt
    • 1
  • S. Briaudeau
    • 2
  • M. Sadli
    • 2
  1. 1.Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)BerlinGermany
  2. 2.Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie LNE-CnamLa Plaine Saint-DenisFrance

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