Effect of Solar Radiation on Viscoelastic Properties of Bovine Leather: Temperature and Frequency Scans

  • Kallen Mulilo NalyanyaEmail author
  • Ronald K. Rop
  • Arthur S. Onyuka


This work presents both analytical and experimental results of the effect of unfiltered natural solar radiation on the thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of Boran bovine leather at both pickling and tanning stages of preparation. Samples cut from both pickled and tanned pieces of leather of appropriate dimensions were exposed to unfiltered natural solar radiation for time intervals ranging from 0 h (non-irradiated) to 24 h. The temperature of the dynamic mechanical analyzer was equilibrated at \(30\, ^\circ \hbox {C}\) and increased to \(240\, ^\circ \hbox {C}\) at a heating rate of \(5\,^\circ \hbox {C}\cdot \hbox {Min}^{-1}\), while its oscillation frequency varied from 0.1 Hz to 100 Hz. With the help of thermal analysis (TA) control software which analyzes and generates parameter means/averages at temperature/frequency range, the graphs were created by Microsoft Excel 2013 from the means. The viscoelastic properties showed linear frequency dependence within 0.1 Hz to 30 Hz followed by negligible frequency dependence above 30 Hz. Storage modulus (\(E'\)) and shear stress (\(\sigma )\) increased with frequency, while loss modulus (\(E''\)), complex viscosity (\(\eta ^{*}\)) and dynamic shear viscosity (\(\upeta )\) decreased linearly with frequency. The effect of solar radiation was evident as the properties increased initially from 0 h to 6 h of irradiation followed by a steady decline to a minimum at 18 h before a drastic increase to a maximum at 24 h. Hence, tanning industry can consider the time duration of 24 h for sun-drying of leather to enhance the mechanical properties and hence the quality of the leather. At frequencies higher than 30 Hz, the dynamic mechanical properties are independent of the frequency. The frequency of 30 Hz was observed to be a critical value in the behavior in the mechanical properties of bovine hide.


Bovine leather Collagen Dynamic mechanical analysis Solar radiation Viscoelastic properties 



Authors acknowledge the National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI), Kenya, for the Research Grant 2014/2015. We also acknowledge Mr. Sifuna Douglas from Chemistry Department-Egerton University who gave constructive input during proofreading of the manuscript and Mr Sasia Alvin from Kenya Industrial Research and Development Institute (KIRDI) for sample preparation.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    B.O. Bitlisli, B. Basarani, O. Sari, A. Aslan, G. Zengin, Indian J. Chem. 11, 654–658 (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. Yi-Qiu, W. Jia-Ni, F. Zhong-Liang, Z. Xing-Ye, Influence and mechanism of ultraviolet aging on Bitumen performance, in Proceedings of the 26th Southern African Transport Conference (SATC). 9–12 July 2007, Pretoria, South Africa (2007), pp. 726–73Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Colonna, M. Nicotra, M. Moncalero, Sports 1, 78–113 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M.A. Amiza, S.D. Aishah, Int. Food Res. J. 18, 159–166 (2011)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    B.S. Chiou, R.J. Avena-Bustillos, J. Shey, E. Yee, P.J. Bechtel, S.H. Imam, G.M. Glenn, W.J. Orts, Polym. J. 47, 6379–6386 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A.A. Karim, R. Bhat, Food Hydrocoll. 23, 563–576 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Z. Li, D. Paudecerf, J. Yang, Acta Mech. Solida Sin. 22, 27–44 (2009)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    K.M. Nalyanya, R.K. Rop, A. Onyuka, J. Kamau, IJSR 4, 2149–2154 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    B. Dolgin, V. Bulatov, I. Schechter, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (2007). doi: 10.1007/s00216-007-1410-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Slater, D. Glassner, E. Vink, T. Gerngross, Biopolym. Online 10, 474–491 (2005)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Sionkowska, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B Biol. 82, 9–15 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Sionkowska, M. Wisniewski, J. Skopinska, D. Mantovani, Int. J. Photochem. 2006, 1–6 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    K.M. Nalyanya, R.K. Rop, A. Onyuka, P.O. Migunde, R.G. Ngumbu, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (2015). doi: 10.1002/app.43208 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Erashad-Langroudi, A. Mirmontahai, J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 120, 1119–1127 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    B. Xu, H. Li, Y. Zhang, Biomatter 3, 246–251 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    K.M. Nalyanya, R.K. Rop, A. Onyuka, P.O. Migunde, R.G. Ngumbu, J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 123, 363–370 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Svobodova, D. Walterova, J. Vostalova, Biomed. Pap. Med. Fac. Univ. Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 150, 25–38 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    T. Koide, M. Daito, Dent. Mater. J. 16, 1–9 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    L.M. Owando, R. Kinyua, J.O.H. Ndeda, S.N. Mangi, J.K. Kibwage, Baraton Interdiscip. Res. J. 3, 29–40 (2013)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. Janko, A. Zink, A.M. Gigler, W.M. Heckl, R.W. Stark, Proc. R. Soc. B 277, 2301–2309 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. Rammensee, D. Huemmerich, K.D. Hermanson, T. Scheibel, A.R. Bausch, Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 82, 261–264 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    N. Ercan, A. Durmus, G. Soyubol, A. Kaşgöz, I. Aydin, AJME 8, 55–61 (2010)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A.A.S. Machado, V.C.A. Martins, A.M.G. Plepis, J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 67, 491–498 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    H. Ju, W. Dan, Y. Hu, H. Lin, N. Dan, J. Mech. Med. Biol. 13, 1340015–1340026 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    L. Duan, J. Li, C. Li, G. Li, Korea-Aust. Rheol. J. 25, 137–144 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    H.A. Barnes, A Handbook of Elementary Rheology (University of Wales, Aberystwyth, 2000)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    J.Y. Xing, B. Bai, W.J. Xue, M.Y. Yang, Food Sci. Biotechnol. 22, 1217–1221 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    K. Kato, G. Bar, H.J. Cantow, Eur. Phys. J. E 6, 7–14 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    R.A. De Carvalho, C.R.F. Grosso, Food Hydrocoll. 18, 717–726 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    L. Yang, V.K.O. Werf, B.F.J.M. Koopman, V. Subramaniam, M.L. Bennink, P.J. Dijkstra, J. Biomed. Mater. Res Part A Appl. Biomater. 82, 160–168 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    K. Wang, X. Zheng, J. Liu, S. Qin, K. Tang, Influence of UV Irradiation on the Properties of Goatskin Collagen Matrices (College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Henan, 2005)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    G.S. Theodossiou, V. Rapti, E. Hovhannisyan, K. Georgiou, P.D. Yova, Lasers Med. Sci. 17, 34–41 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    N.O. Metreveli, L.O. Namicheishvili, K. Jariashvili, D.V. Svintradze, M. Dgebuadze, E.D. Chikvaidze, J. Skopinska, A. Sionkowska, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 73, 448–455 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    N.N. Fathima, T. Ansari, J.R. Rao, B.U. Nair, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 106, 3382–3386 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    C.K. Liu, N.P. Latona, G.L. DiMaio, P.H. Cooke, J. Mater. Sci. 42, 8509–8516 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    K.M. Nalyanya, R.K. Rop, A.S. Onyuka, T. Kilee, P.O. Migunde, R.G. Ngumbu, J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 126, 725–732 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Y. Chen, M. Zhang, W. Liu, G. Li, Korea-Aust. Rheol. J. 23, 41–48 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    C.A. Miles, N.C. Avery, V.V. Rodin, A.J. Bailey, J. Mol. Biol. 346, 551–556 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    S.A. Thurstan, N.K. Gibbs, A.K. Langton, C.E.M. Griffiths, R.E.B. Watson, M.J. Sherratt, Chem. Cent. J. 6, 34 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    R.S. Lakes, AIP 75, 797–810 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    A. Cucos, P. Budrugeac, L. Miu, S. Mitrea, G. Sbarcea, Thermochim. Acta 516, 19–28 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    F.B. Ahmad, P.A. Williams, J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 1578–1586 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kallen Mulilo Nalyanya
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ronald K. Rop
    • 1
  • Arthur S. Onyuka
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Physics, Faculty of ScienceEgerton UniversityNakuruKenya
  2. 2.Kenya Industrial Research and Development Institute (KIRDI)-Leather Development CentreNairobiKenya

Personalised recommendations