International Journal of Thermophysics

, Volume 36, Issue 5–6, pp 932–939 | Cite as

Microfluidic Flow Injection Analysis with Thermal Lens Microscopic Detection for Determination of NGAL

  • Tatjana Radovanović
  • Mingqiang Liu
  • Polona Likar
  • Matjaž Klemenc
  • Mladen FrankoEmail author


A combined microfluidic flow injection analysis-thermal lens microscopy (\(\upmu \)FIA-TLM) system was applied for determination of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)—a biomarker of acute kidney injury. NGAL was determined following a commercial ELISA assay and transfer of the resulting solution into the \(\upmu \)FIA-TLM system with a 100 \(\upmu \)m deep microchannel. At an excitation power of 100 mW, the \(\upmu \)FIA-TLM provided about seven times lower limits of detection (1.5 pg\({\cdot }\mathrm{mL}^{-1})\) as compared to a conventional ELISA test, and a sample throughput of six samples per minute, which compares favorably with sample throughput of the microtiter plate reader, which reads 96 wells in about 30 min. Comparison of results for NGAL in plasma samples from healthy individuals and for NGAL dynamics in patients undergoing coronary angiography measured with transmission mode spectrometry on a microtiter plate reader and with \(\upmu \)FIA-TLM showed good agreement. In addition to improved LOD, the high sensitivity of \(\upmu \)FIA-TLM offers possibilities of a further reduction of the total reaction time of the NGAL ELISA test by sacrificing some of the sensitivity while reducing the duration of individual incubation steps.


Acute kidney injury Flow injection analysis Microfluidics NGAL Thermal lens microscopy 



This study was carried out within the TRANS2CARE Project (Transregional Network for Innovation and Technology Transfer to Improve Health Care) financed by the European Regional Development Fund, and was partly supported by the Slovenian Research Agency through the research program Grant P1-0034 and by young researcher fellowship to T.R.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tatjana Radovanović
    • 1
  • Mingqiang Liu
    • 1
  • Polona Likar
    • 2
  • Matjaž Klemenc
    • 2
  • Mladen Franko
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory for Environmental ResearchUniversity of Nova GoricaNova GoricaSlovenia
  2. 2.Research DepartmentGeneral Hospital “Dr. Franca Derganca” Nova GoricaŠempeter pri Novi GoriciSlovenia

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