International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 39, Issue 5, pp 776–796 | Cite as

Engaging Holism: Exploring Multispecies Approaches in Ethnoprimatology

  • Carolyn A. Jost RobinsonEmail author
  • Melissa J. Remis


Studying the human–alloprimate interface requires researchers to simultaneously examine multiple axes in the lives of organisms across zones of interaction. Such a multiscalar interface creates challenges for ethnoprimatological researchers who must situate their work within ecological, social, or anthropological paradigms. We argue that more explicit incorporation of multispecies ethnography and attention to the distinct practices of Japanese primatology help to realize and promote the potential of ethnoprimatology among a broader peer group of primatologists. Despite the utility of multispecies ethnography, the challenge is not in making multispecies theory applicable to our studies; it is in operationalizing it and making it more accessible by reframing how we view human–alloprimate entanglements. Current examinations of human–alloprimate inter-actions are limited in their ability to bring to bear the relational histories and futures of organisms in shared landscapes. Inter-actions draw attention to momentary encounters rather than to the extended entanglements and holistic properties that emerge from intra-actions within a multispecies assemblage. Using primate hunting in the Central African Republic as a locus of intra-action, we advocate for the expanded promise and future of an ethnoprimatology that can better address human–alloprimate entanglements, improve conservation efforts, and further anthropology’s growing attention to more than human worlds. This is a future that draws heavily from the complexity of the ethnographic moment to more broadly examine the nuanced, intersubjective relationships among those present at the human–alloprimate interface.


Congo Basin Hunting Intra-action Japanese primatology Multispecies ethnography 



It is not possible to adequately express the immense gratitude and deep appreciation we have for the communities with whom we have been working with three past decades. Without the human and nonhuman inhabitants of Mossapoula, Yandoumbe, Bayanga, and Dzanga Sangha, this work would not be possible. We also thank WWF-Bayanga (World Wildlife Fund) and the Central African ministries for their continued support of our research. Thank you to Dr. Bill Alexander, Dr. Katie Smith, Alexandra Hofner, and Dr. Kerry Dore for their comments on early drafts of this article. Further, we would like to thank Erin P. Riley and Sindhu Radhakrishna for organizing this special issue.


  1. Alcayna-Stevens, L. (2016). Habituating field scientists. Social Studies of Science, 46(6), 833–853.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Altmann, J. (1974). Observational study of behavior: Sampling methods. Behaviour, 49(3/4), 227–267.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Altmann, J. (1980). Baboon mothers and infants. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  4. Asquith, P. J. (1986). Anthropomorphism and the Japanese and Western traditions in primatology: East and west. In J. Else & P. Lee (Eds.), Primate ontogeny, cognition, and behavior: Developments in field and laboratory research (pp. 61–71). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  5. Asquith, P. J. (2000). Negotiating science: Internalization and Japanese primatology. In S. C. Strum & L. M. Fedigan (Eds.), Primate encounters: Models of science, gender, and society (pp. 165–183). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  6. Asquith, P. J. (2007). Sources for Imanishi Kinji’s views of sociality and evolutionary outcomes. Journal of Biosciences, 32(4), 635–641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bahuchet, S. (1985). Les pygmées Aka et la forêt Centrafricaine: Ethnologie ecologique. Paris: Société d'Etudes Linguistiques et Anthropologiques de France.Google Scholar
  8. Barad, K. (2003). Posthumanist performativity: toward an understanding of how matter comes to matter. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 28(3), 801–831.Google Scholar
  9. Barad, K. (2008). Meeting the universe halfway: Quantum physics and the entanglement of matter and meaning. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Birke, L., Bryld, M., & Lykke, N. (2004). Animal performances: an exploration of intersections between feminist science studies and studies of human/animal relationships. Feminist Theory, 5(2), 167–183.Google Scholar
  11. Blom, A., & Yamindou, J. (2001). A brief history of armed conflict and its impact on biodiversity in the Central African Republic (CAR). Washington, DC: Biodiversity Support Program, World Wildlife Foundation.Google Scholar
  12. Cibot, M., Bortolamiol, S., Seguya, A., & Krief, S. (2015). Chimpanzees facing a dangerous situation: a high-traffic asphalted road in the Sebitoli area of Kibale National Park, Uganda. American Journal of Primatology, 77(8), 890–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cormier, L. A. (2003). Kinship with monkeys: The Guaja foragers of eastern Amazonia. New York: Columbia University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Croes, B. M., Laurance, W. F., Lahm, S. A., Tchignoumba, L., Alonso, A., Lee, M. E., Campbell, P., & Buij, R. (2007). The influence of hunting on antipredator behavior in central African monkeys and duikers. Biotropica, 39(2), 257–263.Google Scholar
  15. Crutzen, P. J. (2006). The “Anthropocene”. In E. Ehlers & T. Krafft (Eds.), Earth system science in the Anthropocene (pp. 13–18). Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  16. Deleuze, G. (1995). Negotiations, 1972–1990. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Deleuze, G., & Guatarri, F. (1987). A thousand plateaus: Capitalism and schizophrenia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  18. Demesse, L. (1978). Changements techno-economiques et sociaux chez les pygmées BaBinga (nord Congo et sud Centrafrique). Paris: Société d'Etudes Linguistiques et Anthropologiques de France.Google Scholar
  19. Dohlinow, P. (2002). Anthropology and primatology. In A. Fuentes & L. D. Wolfe (Eds.), Primates face to face: The conservation implications of human–nonhuman primate interconnections (pp. 7–24). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Dore, K. M. (2018) Ethnoprimatology without conservation: the political ecology of farmer-green monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) relations in St. Kitts, West Indies. International Journal of Primatology.Google Scholar
  21. Escobar, A. (1998). Whose knowledge, whose nature? Biodiversity, conservation, and the political ecology of social movements. Journal of Political Ecology, 5(1), 53–82.Google Scholar
  22. Estrada, A., Garber, P., Heymann, E., Lambert, J., Rovero, F., et al (2017). Impending collapse of the world’s primates: Why primates matter. Science Advances, 3(1), e1600946.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Fedigan, L. M., & Fedigan, L. (1989). In S. Morgan (Ed.), Gender and anthropology: Critical reviews for teaching and research (pp. 41–64). Washington, DC: American Anthropological Association.Google Scholar
  24. Fuentes, A. (2010). Naturalcultural encounters in Bali: monkeys, temples, tourists, and ethnoprimatology. Cultural Anthropology, 25(4), 600–624.Google Scholar
  25. Fuentes, A. (2012). Ethnoprimatology and the anthropology of the human–primate interface. Annual Review of Anthropology, 41, 101–117.Google Scholar
  26. Fuentes, A., & Baynes-Rock, M. (2017). Anthropogenic landscapes, human action and the process of co-construction with other species: making anthromes in the Anthropocene. Land, 6(1), 1–12.Google Scholar
  27. Fuentes, A., & Wolfe, L. D. (2002). Primates face to face: The conservation implications of human-nonhuman primate interconnections. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Giles-Vernick, T., & Rupp, S. (2006). Visions of apes, reflections on change: telling tales of great apes in equatorial Africa. African Studies Review, 49(1), 51–73.Google Scholar
  29. Hanson, K. T., & Riley, E. P. (2017). Beyond neutrality: The human–primate interface during the habituation process. International Journal of Primatology.
  30. Haraway, D. 1992. The promises of monsters: a regenerative politics for inappropriate/d others. In L. Grossberg, C. Nelson, and Pl. Treichler (Eds.), Cultural Studies. New York: Routledge, 295-337Google Scholar
  31. Haraway, D. (1989). Primate visions: Gender, race, and nature in the world of modern science. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  32. Haraway, D. (2008). When species meet. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  33. Haraway, D. (2016). Staying with the trouble: Making kin in the Chthulucene. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Hardin, R. D., & Remis, M. J. (2006). Biological and cultural anthropology of a changing tropical forest: a fruitful collaboration across subfields. American Anthropologist, 108(2), 273–285.Google Scholar
  35. Hardin, R. D., Remis, M. J., & Jost Robinson, C. A. (2014). From abundance to acute marginality: Farms, arms, and forests in the Central African Republic, 1988–2014. Hot Spots, Cultural Anthropology. Available at–from-abundance-to-acute-marginality-farms-arms-and-forests-in-the-central-african-republic-1988–2014.
  36. Hewlett, B. S. (1991). Intimate fathers: The nature and context of Aka pygmy paternal infant care. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  37. Hewlett, B. S., & Francher, J. M. (2014). Central African hunter-gatherer research traditions. In V. Cummings, P. Jordan, & M. Zvelebil (Eds.), Oxford handbook of the archaeology and anthropology of hunter gatherers. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Hockings, K. J., & Sousa, C. (2013). Human-chimpanzee sympatry and interactions in Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau: Current research and future directions. Primate Conservation, 26(1), 57–65.Google Scholar
  39. Hockings, K. J., Anderson, J. R., & Matsuzawa, T. (2006). Road crossing in chimpanzees: a risky business. Current Biology, 16(17), R668–R670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hockings, K. J., McLennan, M. R., Carvalho, S., Ancrenaz, M., Bobe, R., Byrne, R. W., Dunbar, R. I. M., Matsuzawa, T., McGrew, W. C., Williamson, E. A., Wilson, M. L., Wood, B., Wrangham, R. W., & Hill, C. M. (2015). Apes in the Anthropocene: flexibility and survival. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 30(4), 215–222.Google Scholar
  41. Hofner, A. N., Jost Robinson, C. A., & Nekaris, K. A. I. (2018). Preserving Preuss’s red colobus (Piliocolobus preussi): An ethnographic analysis of hunting, conservation, and changing perceptions of primates in Ikenge-Bakoko, Cameroon. International Journal of Primatology, 39.
  42. Ichikawa, M. (2005). The history and current situation of anthropological studies on Africa in Japan. The African Anthropologist, 12, 158–171.Google Scholar
  43. Ichikawa, M. (2012). Central African forests as hunter-gatherer’s living environment: An approach to historical ecology. African Study Monographs, Suppl. 43, 3–14.Google Scholar
  44. Imanishi, K. (1941). A Japanese view of nature: The world of living things. Translated (2002) P. J. Asquith, H. Kawakatsu, S. Yagi, & H. Takasaki. New York: Routledge Curzon.Google Scholar
  45. Imanishi, K. (1960). Social organization of sub-human primates in their natural habitat. Current Anthropology, 1, 399–407.Google Scholar
  46. Ingold, T. (2000). Perceptions of the environment: Essays on livelihood, dwelling and skill. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Ingold, T. (2011). Being alive: Essays on movement, knowledge, and description. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Jost Robinson, C. A. (2012). Beyond hunters and hunted: An integrated anthropology of human-wildlife dynamics and resource use a central African forest. Ph.D. thesis, Purdue University.Google Scholar
  49. Jost Robinson, C. A. (2017). Introduction: Implications for conservation. In K. M. Dore, E. P. Riley, & A. Fuentes (Eds.), Ethnoprimatology: A practical guide to research at the human-nonhuman primate interface (pp. 253–254). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Jost Robinson, C. A., Daspit, L. L, & Remis M. J. (2011). Multi-faceted approaches to understanding changes in wildlife and livelihoods in a forest system: A case study from the Central African Republic. Environmental Conservation, 38(2), 247–255.Google Scholar
  51. Jost Robinson, C. A., Daspit, L. L., & Remis, M. J. (2016). Monkeys on the menu? Reconciling patterns of primate hunting and consumption in a central African forest. In M. Waller (Ed.), Ethnoprimatology: Primate Conservation in the 21st Century. Springer International: Switzerland.Google Scholar
  52. Jost Robinson, C. A., & Remis, M. J. (2014). Hunters and hunted in the Dzanga-Sangha Dense Forest Reserve (APDS), Central African Republic. Anthropological Quarterly, 87(3), 613–633.Google Scholar
  53. Jost Robinson, C. A, & Remis, M. J. (2016). BaAka women's health and subsistence practices in transitional conservation economies: Variation with age, household size, and food security. American Journal of Human Biology, 28(4), 453–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kawai, M. (1958). On the rank system in a natural group of Japanese monkeys: the basic and dependent rank. Primates, 1, 111–130.Google Scholar
  55. Kawai, M. (1965). Newly acquired pre-cultural behavior of the natural troop of Japanese macaques on Kohsima islet. Primates, 6, 1–30.Google Scholar
  56. Kawai, K. (Ed.) (2013). Groups: The evolution of human sociality. Kyoto: Kyoto University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Kipnis, A. B. (2015). Agency between humanism and posthumanism: latour and his opponents. HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory, 5(2), 43–58.Google Scholar
  58. Kirskey, S. E. (2014). The multispecies salon: Gleanings from a Para-site. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Kirskey, S. E., & Helmreich, S. (2010). The emergence of multispecies ethnography. Cultural Anthropology, 25(4), 545–576.Google Scholar
  60. Kisliuk, M. (2006). Seize the dance! BaAka musical life and the ethnography of performance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Kitanishi, K. (1996). Variability in the subsistence activities and distribution of food among different aged males of the Aka hunter-gatherers in northeastern Congo. African Study Monographs, 17, 35–57.Google Scholar
  62. Klailova, M., Casanova, C., Henschel, P., Lee, P., Rovero, F., & Todd, A. (2012). Non-human predator interactions with wild great apes in Africa and the use of camera traps to study their dynamics. Folia Primatologica, 83(3–6), 312–328.Google Scholar
  63. Kohn, E. (2015). Anthropology of ontologies. Annual Review of Anthropology, 44, 311–327.Google Scholar
  64. Kone, I., & Refisch, J. (2007). Can monkey behavior be used as an indicator for poaching pressure? A case study of the Diana guenon (Cercopithecus diana) and the western red colobus (Procolobus badius) in the Tai National Park, Cote d'Ivoire. Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology, 1(51), 257–289.Google Scholar
  65. Kutuskake, N. (2010). Lost in translation: Field primatology, culture, and interdisciplinary approaches. In J. MacClancy & A. Fuentes (Eds.), Centralizing fieldwork: Critical perspectives from primatology, biological and social anthropology (pp. 104–120). New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  66. Langlitz, N. (2017). Synthetic primatology: What humans and chimpanzees do in a Japanese laboratory and the African field. British Journal for the History of Science Themes, 2, 1–25.Google Scholar
  67. Latimer, J. (2013). Being alongside: Rethinking relations among different kinds. Theory, Culture & Society, 30(7/8), 77–104.Google Scholar
  68. Latour, B. (1993). We have never been modern. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Law, J. (1992). Notes on the theory of actor-network: ordering, strategy and heterogeneity. Systems Practice, 5, 379–393.Google Scholar
  70. Leblan, V. (2013). Emerging approaches in the anthropology/primatology borderland. Revue de Primatologie, 5.
  71. Lewis, J. (2002). Forest hunter-gatherers and their world: A study of the Mbendjele Yaka pygmies of Congo-Brazzaville and their secular and religious activities and representations. Ph.D. dissertation, University of London.Google Scholar
  72. Linder, J. M., & Oates, J. F. (2011). Differential impact of bushmeat hunting on monkey species and implications for primate conservation in Korup National Park, Cameroon. Biological Conservation, 144(2), 738–745.Google Scholar
  73. Livingstone, D. A. (2001). A geological perspective on the conservation of African forests. In W. Weber, L. J. T. White, A. Vedder, & L. Naughton-Treves (Eds.), African rain forest ecology and conservation: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 50–56). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Lizzaralde, M. (2002). Ethnoecology of monkeys among the Bar of Venezuela: Perception, use, and conservation. In A. Fuentes & L. D. Wolfe (Eds.), Primates face to face: The conservation implications of human–nonhuman primate interconnections (pp. 85–100). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Lombard, L. N. (2012). Raiding sovereignty in Central African borderlands. Ph.D. thesis, Duke University.Google Scholar
  76. Lombard, L. N. (2016). State of rebellion: Violence and intervention in the Central African Republic. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  77. MacClancy, J., & Fuentes, A. (2010). Centralizing fieldwork. In J. MacClancy & A. Fuentes (Eds.), Centralizing fieldwork: Critical perspectives from primatology, biological and social anthropology (pp. 1–27). New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  78. Makinnon, K. C. (2014). Contemporary biological anthropology in 2013: integrative, connected, and relevant. American Anthropologist, 116(2), 352–365.Google Scholar
  79. Malcolm, J. R., & Ray, J. C. (2000). Influence of timber extraction routes on central African small-mammal communities, forest structure, and tree diversity. Conservation Biology, 14(6), 1623–1638.Google Scholar
  80. Malone, N., Wade, A. H., Fuentes, A., Riley, E. P., Remis, M. J., & Jost Robinson, C. A. (2014). Ethnoprimatology: critical interdisciplinarity and multispecies approaches in anthropology. Critique of Anthropology, 34(1), 8–29.Google Scholar
  81. Matsuura, N., Takenoshita, Y., & Yamagiwa, J. (2013). Ecological anthropology and primatology for biodiversity conservation: a collaborative project in Moukalaba–Doudou National Park Gabon. Revue de Primatologie, 5.
  82. Matsuzawa, T. (1996). Editorial: a brief note on the historical background of the study of cognition and behavior in nonhuman primates by Japanese researchers. Japanese Psychological Research, 38(3), 109–112.Google Scholar
  83. Matsuzawa, T. (2003). The Ai project: historical and ecological contexts. Animal Cognition, 6, 1–30.Google Scholar
  84. Matsuzawa, T. (2017). Monkeys and mountains in Yunnan, China. Primates, 58(3), 379–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Matsuzawa, T., & McGrew, W. C. (2008). Kinji Imanishi and 60 years of Japanese primatology. Current Biology, 18(14), 587–591.Google Scholar
  86. Maurstad, A., Davis, D., & Cowles, S. (2013). Co-being and intra-action in horse-human relationships: A multi-species ethnography of be(com)ing human and be(com)ing horse. Social Anthropology/Anthropolgie Sociale, 21(3), 322–335.Google Scholar
  87. McKinney, T., & Dore, K. M. (2018). The state of ethnoprimatology: its use and potential in today’s primate research. International Journal of Primatology, 39,
  88. Moise, R. (2010). If pygmies could talk creating indigenous development in equatorial Africa. Before Farming, 4. Scholar
  89. Morgan, D., Mundry, R., Sanz, C., Eyana Ayina, C., Strindbert, S., et al (2017). African apes coexisting with logging: Comparing chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) resource needs and responses to forestry activities. Biological Conservation. Scholar
  90. Mullin, M. (1999). Mirrors and windows: sociocultural studies of human–animal relationships. Annual Review of Anthropology, 28, 201–224.-224 (Volume publication dateGoogle Scholar
  91. Nishida, T. (1968). The social group of wild chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains. Primates, 9, 167–224.Google Scholar
  92. Nishida, T. (1970). Social behavior and relationship among wild chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains. Primates, 11, 47–87.Google Scholar
  93. Nishida, T. (1983). Alpha status and agonistic alliances in wild chimpanzees. Primates, 24, 318–336.Google Scholar
  94. Nishida, T. (2012). Chimpanzees of the lakeshore: Natural history and culture at Mahale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  95. Nishida, T., & Hosaka, K. (1996). Coalition strategies among adult male chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. In W. C. McGrew, L. F. Marchant, & T. Nishida (Eds.), Great ape societies (pp. 114–134). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Noss, A. J., & Hewlett, B. S. (2001). The contexts of female hunting in Central Africa. American Anthropologist, 103(4),
  97. Odgen, L., Hall, B., & Tanita, K. (2013). Animals, plants, people, and things: a review of multispecies ethnography. Environment & Society, 4, 5–24.Google Scholar
  98. Papworth, S., Milner-Gulland, E. J., & Slocombe, K. (2013). The natural place to begin: the ethnoprimatology of the Waorani. American Journal of Primatology, 75(11), 1117–1128.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Pavelka, M. M. (2002). Resistance to the cross-species perspective in anthropology. In A. Fuentes & L. D. Wolfe (Eds.), Primates face to face: The conservation implications of human–nonhuman primate interconnections (pp. 25–44). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  100. Power, C. (2017). Reconstructing a source cosmology for hunter-gatherers. In C. Power, M. Finnegan, & H. Callan (Eds.), Human origins: Contributions from social anthropology (pp. 180–203). New York and Oxford: Berghahn Press.Google Scholar
  101. Remis, M. (1994). Feeding ecology and positional behavior of Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the Central African Republic. Ph.D. thesis, Yale University.Google Scholar
  102. Remis, M. (1995). Effects of body size and social context on the arboreal activities of lowland gorillas in the Central African Republic. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 97(4), 413–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Remis, M. J. (1997a). Western lowland gorillas (G. g. gorilla) as seasonal frugivores: use of variable resources. American Journal of Primatology, 43, 87–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Remis, M. J. (1997b). Ranging and grouping patterns of a western lowland gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. American Journal of Primatology, 43(2), 111–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Remis, M. J. (2000). Preliminary assessment of the impacts of human activities on gorillas Gorilla gorilla gorilla and other wildlife at Dzanga-Sangha reserve, Central African Republic. Oryx, 34(1), 56–65.Google Scholar
  106. Remis, M. J., & Hardin, R. (2007). Assessment of forest use patterns and wildlife abundance: Coupling anthropological and ecological approaches. In K. Hanna, D. Clarke, and S. Slocombe. (Eds.), Protected areas management: Policy & design. London: Spon Press, Routledge.Google Scholar
  107. Remis, M. J., & Hardin, R. (2009). Transvalued species in an African forest. Conservation Biology, 23, 1588–1596.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Remis, M. J., & Jost Robinson, C. A. (2014). Examining short-term nutritional status among BaAka foragers in transitional economies. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 154(3), 365–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Remis, M. J., & Jost Robinson, C. A. (2017). Nonhuman primates and “others” in the Dzanga Sangha reserve: The role of anthropology and multispecies approached in ethnoprimatology. In K. M. Dore, E. P. Riley, & A. Fuentes (Eds.), Ethnoprimatology: A practical guide to research at the human–nonhuman primate interface (pp. 190–205). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  110. Remis, M. J., & Kpanou, J. B. (2011). Primate and ungulate abundance in response to multi-use zoning and human extractive activities in a central African reserve. African Journal of Ecology, 49(1), 70–80.Google Scholar
  111. Riley, E. P. (2006). Ethnoprimatology: toward a reconciliation of biological and cultural anthropology. Ecological and Environmental Anthropology, 2(2), 75–86.Google Scholar
  112. Riley, E. P. (2013). Contemporary primatology in anthropology: beyond the epistemological abyss. American Anthropologist, 115(3), 411–422.Google Scholar
  113. Riley, E. P., Fuentes, A., & Dore, K. M. (2017). Introduction: Doing ethnoprimatology in the Anthropocene. In K. M. Dore, E. P. Riley, & A. Fuentes (Eds.), Ethnoprimatology: A practical guide to research at the human–nonhuman primate interface (pp. 1–6). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  114. Roosevelt, A. (Ed.) (1994). Amerindians from prehistory to present. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  115. Setchell, J. M., Fairet, F., Shutt, K., Waters, S., & Bell, S. (2016). Biosocial conservation: integrating biological and ethnographic methods to study human–primate interactions. International Journal of Primatology, 38, 401–426.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Sponsel, L. E. (1997). The human niche in Amazonia: Explorations in ethnoprimatology. In W. Kinzey (Ed.), New world primates: Ecology, evolution, and behavior (pp. 143–165). Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  117. Struhsaker, T. T. (1981). Polyspecific associations between tropical rainforest primates. Ethology, 57(3/4), 268–304.Google Scholar
  118. Strum, S. C. (1987). Almost human: A journey into the world of baboons. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  119. Strum, S. C., & Fedigan, L. M. (1999). Theory, method, gender, and culture: What changed our views of primate society. In S. C. Strum, D. G. Lindburg, & D. Hamburg (Eds.), The new physical anthropology. Upper Saddle River, NJ:Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  120. Strum, S. C., & Fedigan, L. M. (Eds.) (2000). Primate encounters: Models of science, gender, and society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  121. Sussman, R. W. (2010). Primate fieldwork and its human contexts in southern Madagascar. In J. MacClancy & A. Fuentes (Eds.), Centralizing fieldwork: Critical perspectives from primatology, biological and social anthropology (pp. 49–68). New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  122. Takasaki, H. (2000). Traditions of the Kyoto school of field primatology in Japan. In S. C. Strum & L. M. Fedigan (Eds.), Primate encounters: Models of science, gender, and society (pp. 151–164). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  123. Takeuchi, K. (1995). Subsistence hunting in African tropical forests: hunting techniques and activities among Aka hunter-gatherers, northeastern Congo. Zooarchaeology, 4, 27–52.Google Scholar
  124. Townsend, C. (2015). Baka ritual flow diverted. Hunter Gatherer Research, 1(2), 197–224. Scholar
  125. Tsing, A. (2012). Unruly edges: mushrooms as a companion species, for Donna Haraway. Environmental Humanities, 1(1), 141–154.Google Scholar
  126. VanDooren, T., Kirskey, E., & Muenster, E. (2016). Multspecies studies, cultivating arts of attentiveness. Environmental Humanities, 8(1), 1–23.Google Scholar
  127. Watanabe, K. (2001). A review of 50 years of research on the Japanese monkeys of Koshima: Status and dominance. In T. Matsuzawa (Ed.), Primate origins of human cognition and behavior (pp. 405–417). Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  128. Woodburne, O. (2011). Navigating moral dilemmas: Participatory conservation and development among the Egalitarian BaAka of the Central African Republic. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Kent.Google Scholar
  129. Yamagiwa, J. (2010). Ecological anthropology and primatology: Fieldwork practices and mutual benefits. In J. MacClancy & A. Fuentes (Eds.), Centralizing fieldwork: Critical perspectives from primatology, biological and social anthropology (pp. 84–103). New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of North Carolina at WilmingtonWilmingtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnthropologyPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

Personalised recommendations