Kinship and Intragroup Social Dynamics in Two Sympatric African Colobus Species
- 282 Downloads
Kinship has been described as a major factor shaping primates’ social dynamics, with individuals biasing their affiliative interactions to their related counterparts. However, it has also been demonstrated that, under certain circumstances, social bonding can be established in the absence of kin. The fact that Colobus polykomos (western black-and-white colobus) and Procolobus badius temminckii (Temminck’s red colobus) often live in sympatry (subject to the same ecological/anthropogenic pressures) but exhibit contrasting social systems makes them good models to test which factors shape their social systems. We investigated the influence of kinship on intragroup social dynamics of one focal group of each species present in Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau. Between October 2008 and June 2009 we used focal sampling to collect information on the individuals’ nearest neighbors and ad libitum sampling to collect data on intragroup social interactions. We estimated pairwise relatedness using fecal DNA from 9 individuals of Colobus polykomos and 15 individuals of Procolobus badius temminckii genotyped at 15 microsatellite loci. We found that, in the focal group of Colobus polykomos, individuals showed no preference to interact or be spatially closer to related partners. Moreover, mainly unrelated females and related males composed the focal group of Procolobus badius temminckii but grooming was most frequent among female dyads and only rarely involved male dyads. We conclude that kinship is not an important factor determining the social bonding in either study species, suggesting that other factors, e.g., anthropogenic, ecological, may be at play shaping these groups’ social bonding.
KeywordsColobines Noninvasive sampling Relatedness Social behavior West Africa
This study was financed by a Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia grant (SFRH/BPD/87396/2012) to T. Minhós. We thank Institute of Biodiversity and Protected Areas (IBAP) in Guinea-Bissau for facilitating fieldwork in Guinea-Bissau and providing logistical support. We thank Forestry and Fauna Department (DGFC) and Action for Development (AD) for field assistance and permits and National Institute for Studies and Research (INEP) and Gabinete de Planificação Costeira for providing us with the land cover maps. We sincerely thank Mutaro Galiza, Mamadu (Catomboi), and Saido Kuiaté for the great assistance in the field, helping in the data collection and the local community for welcoming us. We also thank Maria Ferreira da Silva and Rui Sá for the great discussions and their insights across all stages of the work; K. Hockings, C. Casanova A. Barata, and M. Carmo for the great insights during fieldwork; and J. Carvalho for the help with statistical analyses. Finally, we thank the Editor-in-Chief Dr Joanna M Setchell, the Associate Editor James Higham, two anonymous reviewers, and D. Starin, K. Hockings, and R. Xavier for the helpful comments that improved the quality of the manuscript.
- Altmann, J. (1974). Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour, 49(3/4), 229–267.Google Scholar
- Bates, D., Maechler, M., & Bolker, B. M. (2011). lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using S4 classes. arXiv preprint arXiv:1406.5823.Google Scholar
- Costa, S., Casanova, C., Sousa, C., & Lee, P. (2013). The good, the bad and the ugly: perceptions of wildlife in Tombali (Guinea-Bissau, West Africa). Journal of Primatology, 2(110), 2.Google Scholar
- Dasilva, G. L. (1989). The ecology of the western black and white colobus (Colobus polykomos polykomos, Zimmerman 1780) on a riverine island in southeastern Sierra Leone. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oxford.Google Scholar
- Dobson, A. J., & Barnett, A. (2002). An introduction to generalized linear models. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC Press.Google Scholar
- Galat, G., & Galat-Luong, A. (1985). La communauté de primates diurnes de la forêt de Tai, Côte d’Ivoire. Revue d’Ecologie (Terre Vie), 40(1), 3–32.Google Scholar
- Gouzoules, H., & Gouzoules, S. (1987). Kinship. In B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham, & T. T. Struthsaker (Eds.), Primate societies (pp. 299–305). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Isbell, L. A. (2004). Is there no place like home? Ecological bases of female dispersal and philopatry and their consequences for the formation of kin groups. In B. Chapais & C. M. Berman (Eds.), Kinship and behaviour in primates (pp. 71–109). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Korstjens, A. H. (2001). The mob, the secret sorority, and the phantoms: An analysis of the socio-ecological strategies of the three colobines of Tai. Ph.D. dissertation, Utrecht University.Google Scholar
- Ménard, N., Motsch, P., Delahaye, A., Saintvanne, A., Le Flohic, G., Dupé, S. et al. (2013). Effect of habitat quality on the ecological behaviour of a temperate-living primate: time-budget adjustments. Primates, 54(3), 217–228.Google Scholar
- Minhós, T., Nixon, L., Sousa, C., Vicente, L., Ferreira da Silva, M., Sá, R., & Bruford, M. W. (2013a). Genetic evidence for spatio-temporal changes in the dispersal patterns of two sympatric African colobine monkeys. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 150(3), 464–474.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oates, J. F., Gippoliti, S., & Groves, C. P. (2008a). Colobus polykomos. In IUCN 2010. IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2010.4. Available at www.iucnredlist.org.
- Oates, J. F., Struhsaker, T., McGraw, S., et al. (2008b). Procolobus badius. In IUCN 2011. IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2011.2. Available at www.iucnredlist.org.
- R Development Core Team. (2009). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Rel. 2.10.0. Vienna: Foundation for Statistical Computing.Google Scholar
- R Development Core Team. (2012). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.Google Scholar
- Sá, R. M., Petrásová, J., Pomajbíková, K., Profousová, I., Petrzelková, K. J., Sousa, C., & Modry, D. (2013). Gastrointestinal symbionts of chimpanzees in Cantanhez National Park, Guinea‐Bissau with respect to habitat fragmentation. American Journal of Primatology, 75(10), 1032–1041.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Siex, K. S. (2003). Effects of population compression on the demography, ecology, and behavior of the Zanzibar red colobus monkey (P. kirkii). Ph.D. dissertation, Duke University.Google Scholar
- Silk, J. B. (1987). Social behavior in evolutionary perspective. In B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham, & T. T. Struthsaker (Eds.), Primate societies (pp. 318–329). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Simão, A. (1997). Identificação e delimitação cartográfica dos grandes maciços florestais de Cantanhez. Relatório de Missão. Acção para o Desenvolvimento: Bissau, Republica da Guiné-Bissau. Acção para o Desemvolvimento, Républica da Guiné-Bissau.Google Scholar
- Starin, E. D. (1991). Socioecology of the red colobus in the Gambia with particular reference to female-male differences and transfer patterns. Ph.D. dissertation, The City University of New York.Google Scholar
- Struhsaker, T. T. (1975). The red colobus monkey. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Struhsaker, T. T., & Leland, L. (1979). Socioecology of two sympatric monkey species in the Kibale Forest, Uganda. In J. Rosenblatt, R. A. Hinde, A. Beer, & M. C. Busnel (Eds.), Advances in the study of behavior, vol. 9 (pp. 158–228). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Struhsaker, T. T., & Oates, J. F. (1975). Comparison of the behaviour and ecology of red colobus and black-and-white colobus monkeys in Uganda: A summary. In R. H. Tuttle (Ed.), Socioecology and psychology of primates (pp. 103–123). The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
- Tutin, C. E. (1999). Fragmented living: behavioural ecology of primates in a forest fragment in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon. Primates, 40(1), 249–265.Google Scholar
- van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (2000). Relationships among non-human primate males: a deductive framework. In P. Kappeler (Ed.), Primate males: Causes and consequences of variation in group composition (pp. 183–191). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Wrangham, R. W., & Peterson, D. (1996). Demonic males. New York: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar