International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 143–153

Diversity and Prevalence of Diarrhea-Associated Viruses in the Lemur Community and Associated Human Population of Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar

  • Sarah Zohdy
  • Marissa K. Grossman
  • Ian R. Fried
  • Fidisoa T. Rasambainarivo
  • Patricia C. Wright
  • Thomas R. Gillespie
Article

Abstract

Diarrhea-associated viruses are common causes of morbidity in humans in developing countries; however, they have seldom been studied in wild primates despite their pathogenic and zoonotic potential. This is of particular concern in Madagascar, one of the world’s poorest and most biodiverse countries. To improve our understanding of diarrhea-associated viruses in human and nonhuman wild primates in Madagascar, we noninvasively collected fecal samples from 7 of the 12 lemur species of Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar and concurrently sampled humans living in proximity to the lemurs. We used standard molecular techniques to screen 84 lemur and 107 human samples for viral groups commonly associated with diarrheal disease in human populations: adenovirus, enterovirus, rotavirus, and norovirus (genogroups GI and GII). Of the seven lemur taxa examined, all were positive for one or more viral group and humans were positive for all viral groups. Norovirus GII was the most common, found in 27 % of lemurs and 37 % of humans, followed by adenovirus, found in 25 % of lemurs and 35 % of humans. The high prevalence (30–50 %) of most viral groups in mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus) highlights their potential to serve as sentinals of pathogen spillover from humans to wild lemur populations. These results improve our understanding of the diversity and prevalence of key viral taxa in lemur and associated human populations. Further characterization of these viral group sequences has the potential to reveal novel viruses in lemurs and humans in Madagascar and would be needed to determine the zoonotic potential of the viruses detected.

Keywords

Adenovirus Enterovirus Microcebus rufus Norovirus Prolemur simus Rotavirus 

Supplementary material

10764_2015_9817_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (808 kb)
ESM 1(PDF 808 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah Zohdy
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Marissa K. Grossman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ian R. Fried
    • 1
  • Fidisoa T. Rasambainarivo
    • 3
  • Patricia C. Wright
    • 4
  • Thomas R. Gillespie
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution and Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public HealthEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Centre ValBioRanomafanaMadagascar
  4. 4.Department of AnthropologyStony Brook UniversityStony BrookUSA

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