International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 35, Issue 5, pp 976–989 | Cite as

Distribution, Demography, and Conservation of Lion-tailed Macaques (Macaca silenus) in the Anamalai Hills Landscape, Western Ghats, India

  • Honnavalli N. Kumara
  • R. Sasi
  • R. Suganthasakthivel
  • Mewa Singh
  • H. S. Sushma
  • K. K. Ramachandran
  • Werner Kaumanns
Article

Abstract

The status of the endemic and endangered lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) has not been properly assessed in several regions of the Western Ghats of southern India. We conducted a study in Parambikulam Forest Reserve in the state of Kerala to determine the distribution, demography, and status of lion-tailed macaques. We laid 5km2 grid cells on the map of the study area (644km2) and made four replicated walks in each grid cell using GPS. We gathered data on lion-tailed macaque group locations, demography, and site covariates including trail length, duration of walk, proportion of evergreen forest, height of tallest trees, and human disturbance index. We also performed occupancy modeling using PRESENCE ver. 3.0. We estimated a minimum of 17 groups of macaques in these hills. Low detection and occupancy probabilities indicated a low density of lion-tailed macaques in the study area. Height of the tallest trees correlated positively whereas human disturbance and proportion of evergreen forest correlated negatively with occupancy in grid cells. We also used data from earlier studies carried out in the surrounding Anamalai Tiger Reserve and Nelliyampathy Hills to discuss the conservation status in the large Anamalai Hills Landscape. This landscape harbors an estimated population of 1108 individuals of lion-tailed macaques, which is about one third of the entire estimated wild population of this species. A conservation plan for this landscape could be used as a model for conservation in other regions of the Western Ghats.

Keywords

Anamalai Tiger Reserve Anamalai Hills landscape Conservation Lion-tailed macaque Nelliyampathy Hills Parambikulam Western Ghats 

Supplementary material

10764_2014_9776_MOESM1_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Supplementary Table 1Disturbance Index (DOCX 17 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Honnavalli N. Kumara
    • 1
  • R. Sasi
    • 2
  • R. Suganthasakthivel
    • 3
  • Mewa Singh
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • H. S. Sushma
    • 7
  • K. K. Ramachandran
    • 8
  • Werner Kaumanns
    • 9
  1. 1.Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural HistoryCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of MadrasChennaiIndia
  3. 3.Kerala Forest Research InstitutePeechiIndia
  4. 4.Biopsychology LaboratoryUniversity of MysoreMysoreIndia
  5. 5.Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific ResearchBangaloreIndia
  6. 6.National Institute of Advanced StudiesBangaloreIndia
  7. 7.Foundation for Ecological Research Advocacy and Learning (FERAL)Auroville P.O.India
  8. 8.Kerala Forest Research InstitutePeechiIndia
  9. 9.LTM Research and ConservationGleichenGermany

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