Advertisement

International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 33, Issue 4, pp 905–921 | Cite as

Stability and Change of Social Relationship Quality in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

  • Sonja E. Koski
  • Han de Vries
  • Annette van de Kraats
  • Elisabeth H. M. Sterck
Article

Abstract

In social animals an individual’s fitness depends partly on the quality of relationships with others. Qualitative variation in relationships has been conceptualized according to a three-dimensional structure, consisting of relationship value, compatibility, and security. However, the determinants of the components and their temporal stability are not well understood. We studied relationship quality in a newly formed group of 20 captive chimpanzees made up of several previously existing social groups. We assessed dyadic relationship quality 2 yr and again 7 yr after grouping. We confirmed the existence and stability of three relationship components and labeled them value, compatibility, and approach symmetry. Previously familiar dyads had a higher value than unfamiliar dyads, especially when they were maternally or paternally related. Compatibility was higher in dyads with only females than in dyads containing a male, but familiarity did not influence compatibility. Approach symmetry was initially higher, but later lower, in familiar than unfamiliar dyads, indicating that approach symmetry of familiar dyads decreased over time. Dyadic value and compatibility were highly stable over time, which is similar to the long relationship duration found in wild chimpanzees. In sum, relationships formed earlier in life became more valuable than those formed in later adulthood, whereas nonaggressive, compatible relationships could be formed throughout life. This suggests that for immigrating individuals, high-value relationships may be relatively difficult to establish, partly explaining why wild female chimpanzees have relatively few high-quality relationships with other females. Our study supports the multicomponent structure and durability of relationships in social species.

Keywords

Chimpanzee Compatibility Relationship value Security Tenure 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Biomedical Primate Research Centre and the Safaripark Beekse Bergen for allowing us to study the chimpanzees and for information on the chimpanzees’ backgrounds, and Jurgen Kooijman, who collected the data at BPRC. We thank Jo Setchell and two anonymous reviewers for helpful and constructive comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. Academy of Finland provided financial support to S. E. Koski.

References

  1. Aureli, F., & Schaffner, C. (2002). Relationship assessment through emotional mediation. Behaviour, 139, 393–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barrett, L., & Henzi, P. (2006). Monkeys, markets and minds: Biological markets and primate sociality. In P. M. Kappeler & C. P. van Schaik (Eds.), Cooperation in primates and humans: Mechanisms and evolution (pp. 209–232). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boesch, C., & Boesch-Achermann, H. (2000). The chimpanzees of the Tai Forest: Behavioural ecology and evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bradley, B., Doran-Sheeley, D. M., & Vigilant, L. (2007). Potential for female kin-associations in wild western gorillas despite female dispersal. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 274, 2179–2185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brosnan, S. F., Schiff, H. C., & De Waal, F. B. M. (2005). Tolerance for inequity may increase with social closeness in chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 272, 253–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Butts, C. T. (2008). Social network analysis with sna. Journal of Statistical Software, 24(6), 1–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Butts, C. T. (2010). sna: Tools for social network analysis. R package version 2.1. Can be downloaded from: http://erzuli.ss.uci.edu/R.stuff/sna/sna-manual.2.2.pdf. Accessed 6 May 2012.
  8. Cords, M., & Aureli, F. (2000). Reconciliation and relationship qualities. In F. Aureli & F. B. M. de Waal (Eds.), Natural conflict resolution (pp. 177–198). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  9. de Waal, F. B. M. (1996). Chimpanzee’s adaptive potential: A comparison of social life under captive and wild conditions. In R. W. Wrangham, W. C. McGrew, F. B. M. de Waal, & P. G. Heltne (Eds.), Chimpanzee cultures (pp. 243–260). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  10. de Waal, F. B. M. (1997). The chimpanzee’s service economy: food for grooming. Evolution and Human Behavior, 18, 375–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dekker, D., Krackhardt, D., & Snijders, T. A. B. (2007). Sensitivity of MRQAP tests to collinearity and autocorrelation conditions. Psychometrika, 72, 563–581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Deutsch, M. (1975). Equity, equality, and need: what determines which value will be used as the basis of distributive justice. Journal of Social Issues, 31, 137–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fraser, O. N., & Bugnyar, T. (2010). The quality of social relationships in ravens. Animal Behaviour, 79, 927–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fraser, O. N., Schino, G., & Aureli, F. (2008). Components of relationship quality in chimpanzees. Ethology, 114, 834–843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gilby, C., & Wrangham, R. W. (2008). Association patterns among wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) reflect sex differences in cooperation. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 11, 1831–1842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gomes, C. M., & Boesch, C. (2011). Reciprocity and trades in wild West African chimpanzees. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 65, 2183–2196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Greenwood, P. J. (1980). Mating systems, philopatry and dispersal in birds and mammals. Animal Behaviour, 28, 1140–1162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Henzi, S. P., Lusseau, D., Weingrill, T., van Schaik, C. P., & Barrett, L. (2009). Cyclicity in the structure of female baboon social networks. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 63, 1015–1021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Huchard, E., Alvergne, A., Féjan, D., Knapp, L. A., Cowlishaw, G., & Raymond, M. (2010). More than friends? Behavioural and genetic aspects of heterosexual associations in wild chacma baboons. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 64, 769–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kahlenberg, S. M., Thompson, M. E., Muller, M. N., & Wrangham, R. W. (2008). Immigration costs for female chimpanzees and male protection as an immigrant counterstrategy to intrasexual aggression. Animal Behaviour, 76, 1497–1509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kappeler, P., & van Schaik, C. (2002). Evolution of primate social systems. International Journal of Primatology, 23, 707–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kapsalis, E. (2004). Matrilineal kinship and primate behavior. In B. Chapais & C. M. Berman (Eds.), Kinship and behavior in primates (pp. 153–176). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Kummer, H. (1978). On the value of social relationships to nonhuman primates: a heuristic scheme. Social Science Information, 17, 687–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kutsukake, N. (2003). Assessing relationship quality and social anxiety among wild chimpanzees using self-directed behaviour. Behaviour, 140, 1153–1171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Langergraber, K. E., Mitani, J. C., & Vigilant, L. (2007). The limited impact of kinship on cooperation in wild chimpanzees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 104, 7786–7790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Langergraber, K., Mitani, J., & Vigilant, L. (2009). Kinship and social bonds in female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology, 71, 840–851.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lehmann, J., & Boesch, C. (2008). Sexual differences in chimpanzee sociality. International Journal of Primatology, 29, 65–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Majolo, B., Ventura, R., & Schino, G. (2010). Asymmetry and dimensions of relationship quality in the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata yakui). International Journal of Primatology, 31, 736–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Massen, J. J., Sterck, E. H., & De Vos, H. (2010). Close social associations in animals and humans: functions and mechanisms of friendship. Behaviour, 147, 1379–1412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Massen, J. J. M., Overduin-de Vries, A. M., Vos-Rouweler, A. J. M., Spruijt, B. M., Doxiadis, G. G. M., & Sterck, E. H. M. (2012). Male mating tactics in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): the influence of dominance, markets, and relationship quality. International Journal of Primatology, 33, 73–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McFarland, R., & Majolo, B. (2011). Exploring the components, asymmetry and distribution of relationship quality in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). PLoS One, 6, e28826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mitani, J. (2009). Male chimpanzees form enduring and equitable social bonds. Animal Behaviour, 77, 633–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Moscovice, L. R., Fiore, A. D., Crockford, C., Kitchen, D. M., Wittig, R., Seyfarth, R. M., & Cheney, D. L. (2010). Hedging their bets? Male and female chacma baboons form friendships based on likelihood of paternity. Animal Behaviour, 79, 1007–1015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Muller, M. N. (2002). Agonistic relations among Kanyawara chimpanzees. In C. Boesch, G. Hohmann, & L. F. Marchant (Eds.), Behavioural diversity in chimpanzees and bonobos (pp. 112–124). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Newton-Fisher, N. E. (2006). Female coalitions against male aggression in wild chimpanzees of the Budongo Forest. International Journal of Primatology, 27, 1589–1599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nishida, T. (1989). Social interactions between resident and immigrant female chimpanzees. In P. G. Heltne & L. A. Marquardt (Eds.), Understanding chimpanzees (pp. 68–89). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Nishida, T., Corp, N., Hamai, M., Hasegawa, T., Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, M., Hosaka, K., Hunt, K. D., Itoh, N., Kawanaka, K., Matsumoto-Oda, A., Mitani, J. C., et al. (2003). Demography, female life history, and reproductive profiles among the chimpanzees of Mahale. American Journal of Primatology, 59, 99–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Noë, R., & Sluijter, A. A. (1995). Which adult male savanna baboons form coalitions? International Journal of Primatology, 16, 77–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Palombit, R. (2000). Infanticide and the evolution of male–female bonds in animals: Infanticide by males and its implications (pp. 239–268). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Parr, L. A., & De Waal, F. B. M. (1999). Visual kin recognition in chimpanzees. Nature, 399, 647–648.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Perry, S., Manson, J. H., Muniz, L., Gros-Louis, J., & Vigilant, L. (2008). Kin-biased social behaviour in wild adult female white-faced capuchins, Cebus capucinus. Animal Behaviour, 76, 187–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pusey, A., Williams, J., & Goodall, J. (1997). The influence of dominance rank on the reproductive success of female chimpanzees. Science, 277, 828–831.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pusey, A. E., Murray, C. M., Wallauer, W., Wilson, M. L., Wroblewski, E., & Goodall, J. (2008). Severe aggression among female chimpanzees at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. International Journal of Primatology, 29, 949–973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rebecchini, L., Schaffner, C. M., & Aureli, F. (2011). Risk is a component of social relationships in spider monkeys. Ethology, 117, 691–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Schino, G., & Aureli, F. (2010). A few misunderstandings about reciprocal altruism. Communicative & Integrative Biology, 3, 561–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schoof, V. A. M., Jack, K. M., & Isbell, L. A. (2009). What traits promote male parallel dispersal in primates? Behaviour, 146, 701–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schülke, O., Bhagavatula, J., Vigilant, L., & Ostner, J. (2010). Social bonds enhance reproductive success in male macaques. Current Biology, 20, 2207–2210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Seyfarth, R. M. (1977). A model of social grooming among adult female monkeys. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 65, 671–698.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Seyfarth, R. M., & Cheney, D. L. (2012). The evolutionary origins of friendship. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 153–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Silk, J. B. (2007). The adaptive value of sociality in mammalian groups. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 362, 539–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Silk, J. B., Alberts, S. C., & Altmann, J. (2003). Social bonds of female baboons enhance infant survival. Science, 302, 1231–1234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Silk, J. B., Altmann, J., & Alberts, S. (2006a). Social relationships among adult female baboons (Papio cynocephalus). I. Variation in the strength of social bonds. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 61, 183–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Silk, J. B., Alberts, S., & Altmann, J. (2006b). Social relationships among adult female baboons (Papio cynocephalus). II. Variation in the quality and stability of social bonds. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 61, 197–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Silk, J. B., Beehner, J. C., Bergman, T. J., Crockford, C., Engh, A. L., Moscovice, L. R., Wittig, R. M., Seyfarth, R. M., & Cheney, D. L. (2010a). Strong and consistent social bonds enhance the longevity of female baboons. Current Biology, 20, 1359–1361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Silk, J. B., Beehner, J. C., Bergman, T. J., Crockford, C., Engh, A. L., Moscovice, L. R., Wittig, R. M., Seyfarth, R. M., & Cheney, D. L. (2010b). Female chacma baboons form strong, equitable, and enduring social bonds. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 64, 1733–1747.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Silk, J. B., Alberts, S. C., Altmann, J., Cheney, D. L., & Seyfarth, R. M. (2012). Stability of partner choice among female baboons. Animal Behaviour, 83, 1511–1518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. van Schaik, C. P., & Kappeler, P. M. (1997). Infanticide risk and the evolution of male-female associations in primates. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 164, 1687–1694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sonja E. Koski
    • 1
  • Han de Vries
    • 2
  • Annette van de Kraats
    • 2
  • Elisabeth H. M. Sterck
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Anthropological Institute and MuseumUniversity of ZürichZürichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of Behavioural BiologyUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Behavioural BiologyUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Ethology Research, Biomedical Primate Research CentreRijswijkThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations