International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 33, Issue 5, pp 1069–1080 | Cite as

The Socioecology of Network Scaling Ratios in the Multilevel Society of Hamadryas Baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas)

Article

Abstract

Multilevel or modular societies characterize a range of mammalian taxa, allowing social groups to fission and fuse in response to ecological factors. The modular society of hamadryas baboons has previously been shown to consist of 4 levels: troop, band, clan, and one-male unit (OMU). A recent study by Hill et al. (Biology Letters 4:748–751, 2008) revealed a mean scaling ratio across successive levels of multilevel societies of ca. 3; this was consistent across elephants, orca, geladas, and hamadryas baboons. Here we reanalyze the scaling ratio for hamadryas baboons with previously unavailable data from Filoha. Our analysis revealed a mean scaling ratio for hamadryas of 3.28 without data on the hamadryas clan layer of organization at Filoha, but a ratio of 6.17 with these data included. This discrepancy is due to the large clan and band sizes at Filoha yielding a larger than average gap between the OMU and the clan. Further analysis revealed subsets of OMUs within clans, suggesting a 5th level of society in this population. When this 5th layer of social structure is included in the analysis, the scaling ratio at Filoha is consistent with that of other hamadryas populations and other taxa. These results suggest that a consistent mammalian scaling ratio can be used to detect previously hidden levels of organization within societies and to predict their sizes in taxa for which detailed behavioral data are not available.

Keywords

Clans Hamadryas baboons Hierarchical society Multilevel social organization Scaling ratio 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Authority for permission to conduct research at Filoha. The City University of New York PSC-CUNY Research Award Program (award no. 66588-0035 to L. Swedell), the New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology, and the City University of New York Ph.D. Program in Anthropology provided funding. For support and assistance in the field, we thank Getenet Hailemeskel, Demekech Woldearegay, Teklu Tesfaye, Getu Mamush, Denberu Tesfaye, Getu Kifle, Julian Saunders, Christine Tuaillon, and Matt Klein. We thank Cyril Grueter and 3 anonymous reviewers for comments that have greatly improved this manuscript.

References

  1. Abegglen, J. J. (1984). On socialization in hamadryas baboon. London: Associated University Presses.Google Scholar
  2. Al-Safadi, M. M. (1994). The hamadryas baboon, Papio hamadryas (Linnaeus, 1758) in Yemen (Mammalia: Primates: Cercopithecidae). Zoology in the Middle East, 10, 5–16.Google Scholar
  3. Bergman, T., & Beehner, J. (2004). Social system of a hybrid baboon group (Papio anubis × P. hamadryas). International Journal of Primatology, 25, 1313–1330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Biquand, S., Biquand-Guyot, V., Boug, A., & Gautier, J.-P. (1992). Group composition in wild and commensal hamadryas baboons: a comparative study in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Primatology, 13, 533–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brent, L. J. N., Lehmann, J., & Ramos-Fernandez, G. (2011). Social network analysis in the study of non-human primates: a historical perspective. American Journal of Primatology, 73, 720–730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Colmenares, F. (2004). Kinship structure and its impact on behavior in multi-level societies. In B. Chapais & C. M. Berman (Eds.), Kinship and behavior in primates (pp. 242–270). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Cui, L., Huo, S., Zhong, T., Xiang, Z., Xiao, W., & Quan, R. (2008). Social organization of black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Deqin, China. American Journal of Primatology, 70, 169–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Grueter, C. C., & Zinner, D. (2004). Nested societies: convergent adaptations of baboons and snub-nosed monkeys? Primate Report, 70, 1–98.Google Scholar
  9. Hamilton, M. J., Milne, B. T., Walker, R. S., Burger, O., & Brown, J. H. (2007). The complex social structure of hunter-gatherer social networks. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 274, 2195–2202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hill, R. A., & Dunbar, R. I. M. (2003). Social network size in humans. Human Nature, 14, 53–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hill, R. A., Bentley, R. A., & Dunbar, R. I. M. (2008). Network scaling reveals consistent fractal pattern in hierarchical mammalian societies. Biology Letters, 4, 748–751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hoogland, J. L. (1995). The black-tailed prairie dog: Social life of a burrowing animal. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  13. Kirkpatrick, R. C., & Grueter, C. C. (2010). Snub-nosed monkeys: multilevel societies across varied environments. Evolutionary Anthropology, 19, 98–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kummer, H. (1968). Social organization of hamadryas baboons: A field study. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  15. Kummer, H. (1971). Primate societies: Group techniques of ecological adaptation. Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson.Google Scholar
  16. Kummer, H., Banaja, A. A., Abo-Khatwa, A. N., & Ghandour, A. M. (1981). Mammals of Saudi Arabia: primates: a survey of hamadryas baboons in Saudi Arabia. Fauna of Saudi Arabia, 3, 441–471.Google Scholar
  17. Liu, Z., Ding, W., & Grueter, C. C. (2007). Preliminary data on the social organization of black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Tacheng, China. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 27, 120–122.Google Scholar
  18. Manno, T. G. (2008). Social networking in the Columbian ground squirrel, Spermophilus columbianus. Animal Behaviour, 75, 1221–1228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nagel, U. (1973). A comparison of anubis baboons, hamadryas baboons and their hybrids at a species border in Ethiopia. Folia Primatologica, 19, 104–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pines, M., Saunders, J., & Swedell, L. (2011). Alternative routes to the leader male role in a multi-level society: follower versus solitary male strategies and outcomes in hamadryas baboons. American Journal of Primatology, 73(7), 679–691.Google Scholar
  21. Ren, R. M., Su, Y. J., Yan, K. H., Li, J. J., Zhou, Y., Zhu, Z. Q., Hu, Z. L., & Hu, Y. F. (1998). Preliminary survey of the social organization of Rhinopithecus [Rhinopithecus] roxellana in Shennongjia Natural Reserve, Hubei, China. In N. G. Jabonski (Ed.), The natural history of the doucs and snub-nosed monkeys (pp. 269–277). Singapore: World Scientific Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ren, R., Yan, K. H., Su, Y. J., Zhou, Y., Li, J. J., Zhu, Z. Q., Hu, Z. L., & Hu, Y. F. (2000). A field study of the society of Rhinopithecus roxellanae. Beijing: Beijing University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Schreier, A. L. (2009). The influence of resource distribution on the social structure and travel patterns of wild hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) in Filoha, Awash National Park, Ethiopia. Ph.D. thesis, City University of New York.Google Scholar
  24. Schreier, A. L. (2010). Feeding ecology, food availability, and ranging patterns of wild hamadryas baboons at Filoha. Folia Primatologica, 81, 129–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Schreier, A., & Swedell, L. (2008). Use of palm trees as a sleeping site for hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) in Ethiopia. American Journal of Primatology, 70, 107–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Schreier, A. L., & Swedell, L. (2009). The fourth level of social structure in a multi-level society: ecological and social functions of clans in hamadryas baboons. American Journal of Primatology, 71, 948–955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sigg, H., & Stolba, A. (1981). Home range and daily march in a hamadryas baboon troop. Folia Primatologica, 26, 40–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Stammbach, E. (1987). Desert, forest, and montane baboons: Multilevel societies. In B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham, & T. T. Struhsaker (Eds.), Primate societies (pp. 112–120). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  29. Sugawara, K. (1979). Sociological study of a wild group of hybrid baboons between Papio anubis and P. hamadryas in the Awash valley. Primates, 20, 21–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Swedell, L. (2000). Two takeovers in wild hamadryas baboons. Folia Primatologica, 71, 169–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Swedell, L. (2002a). Affiliation among females in wild hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas). International Journal of Primatology, 23, 1205–1226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Swedell, L. (2002b). Ranging behavior, group size and behavioral flexibility in Ethiopian hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas). Folia Primatologica, 73, 95–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Swedell, L. (2006). Strategies of sex and survival in Hamadryas baboons: Through a female lens. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  34. Swedell, L. & Plummer, T. (this issue). A papionin multi-level society as a model for early hominin evolution. International Journal of Primatology.Google Scholar
  35. Swedell, L., & Schreier, A. (2009). Male aggression towards females in hamadryas baboons: Conditioning, coercion, and control. In M. N. Muller & R. Wrangham (Eds.), Sexual coercion in primates: An evolutionary perspective on male aggression against females (pp. 244–268). Cambridge, CA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Swedell, L., Hailemeskel, G., & Schreier, A. (2008). Composition and seasonality of diet in adult male hamadryas baboons: preliminary findings from Filoha. Folia Primatologica, 79, 476–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Swedell, L., Saunders, J., Schreier, A., Davis, B., & Pines, M. (2011). Female “dispersal” in hamadryas baboons: transfer among social units in a multi-level society. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21504.
  38. Whitehead, H., Waters, S., & Lyrholm, T. (1991). Social organization of female sperm whales and their constant companions and casual acquaintances. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 29, 385–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wolf, J. B. W., Mawdsley, D., Trillmich, F., & James, R. (2007). Social structure in a colonial mammal: unraveling hidden structural layers and their foundations by network analysis. Animal Behaviour, 74, 1293–1302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Xiang, Z. F. (2005). The ecology and behavior of black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti, Colobinae) at Xiaochangdu in Honglaxueshan National Nature Reserve, Tibet, China. Ph.D. thesis, Kunming Institute of Zoology.Google Scholar
  41. Yang, S. (2000). Habitat, diet, range use and social organization of Rhinopithecus bieti at Jinsichang. Ph.D. thesis, Kunming Institute of Zoology.Google Scholar
  42. Zhang, P., Watanabe, K., Li, B., & Tan, C. (2006). Social organization of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the Qinling Mountains, Central China. Primates, 47, 374–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhou, W. X., Sornette, D., Hill, R. A., & Dunbar, R. I. M. (2005). Discrete hierarchical organization of social group sizes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 272, 439–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zinner, D., Peláez, F., & Torkler, F. (2001). Distribution and habitat associations of baboons (Papio hamadryas) in Central Eritrea. International Journal of Primatology, 22, 397–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Evolutionary AnthropologyDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Department of Anthropology, Queens CollegeCity University of New YorkFlushingUSA

Personalised recommendations