International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 33, Issue 1, pp 93–114 | Cite as

Fission–Fusion Dynamics in Southern Muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) in Continuous Brazilian Atlantic Forest

  • Rebecca C. Coles
  • Phyllis C. Lee
  • Mauricio Talebi


Fission–fusion social dynamics, the spatiotemporal variance in subunit size, composition, and cohesion, are the subject of considerable interest owing to their complex nature and widespread appearance in the primate order. We here aim to describe the nature of fission–fusion dynamics in a population of egalitarian southern muriquis inhabiting a relatively undisturbed extension of mildly seasonal Brazilian Atlantic forest to provide insights into the functions of fission–fusion dynamics and to examine the constraints on and opportunities for associations among individuals. We collected instantaneous scan samples and ad libitum data over a total of 13 mo in 2 yr (1599 observation hours) on subunit size at 2 spatiotemporal scales (party and nomadic party), party composition, spatial cohesion, and the behavioral context of fission–fusion events. These southern muriquis exhibited high levels of fission–fusion with significant variation in party size, cohesion, and composition. The group was weakly cohesive with a small mean party size (3.74 adults, 5.32 all individuals) and nomadic party size (13.73 adults, 19.38 all individuals). Mixed parties were the most frequently observed party type, although the high frequency of all-male parties suggests strong relationships based on philopatry and a mating strategy under scramble competition. We compare fission–fusion dynamics across populations of Brachyteles and highlight the striking continuum of these dynamics in the genus. We make interspecific comparisons with Ateles and Pan, with well documented high levels of fission–fusion, and demonstrate interspecific variation and convergence in grouping patterns.


Brachyteles Fission–fusion Group cohesion Party composition Party size 



We thank Pró-Muriqui Association for logistical support and concession of field assistance by Pedro Soares and Rafael de Silveira Bueno Silva; Director J. L. C. Maia of Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, CNPq and the Forestry Foundation of São Paulo State for granting research permits (SMA 41513/1999–2009); Dr. Roland Barriot (Laboratoire de Microbiologie et Génétique Moléculaires, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse) for data format conversions in PERL; 2 anonymous reviewers for valuable comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. R. C. Coles was the recipient of a University of Cambridge Domestic Research Scholarship. M. Talebi was the recipient of a WWF-Brazil Postgraduate Support Grant (2002) and grants from the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation through the Primate Action Fund of Conservation International, USA; Conservation International Brazil; Idea Wild; Manfred Hermsen Stiftung Foundation, Bremen, Germany; British Airways Assisting Conservation Bureau; and Downing College and University of Cambridge, UK. The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Rebecca C. Coles
    • 1
    • 2
  • Phyllis C. Lee
    • 3
  • Mauricio Talebi
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Biological AnthropologyUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  2. 2.ToulouseFrance
  3. 3.Behaviour and Evolution Research Group, School of Natural SciencesUniversity of StirlingStirlingUK
  4. 4.Departamento de Ciencias BiologicasUniversidade Federal de São PauloCampus DiademaBrazil

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