Interactions Between Third Parties and Consortship Partners in Tonkean Macaques (Macaca tonkeana)
- 131 Downloads
Sexual competition is potentially disruptive for the cohesion of social groups because stress and conflicts can extend to other group members. The displays and interactions of sexual partners are liable to influence the behavior of group-mates, which may need to observe them to anticipate possible consequences. We studied 2 captive groups of Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) to test whether group-mates pay more attention to consort partners, modify their activities and social interactions, and exhibit signs of stress during periods of sexual consortships. We found that group-mates approached the top-ranking male more frequently and were more frequently oriented toward the consort pair at the time of consortship than at other times. Group-mates spent less time sleeping, and devoted less time to manipulating the environment and more time to monitoring during consortship. This indicates that consortships may incur costs in individuals not involved in sexual competition. However, Tonkean macaques did not exhibit any signs of increased stress during consortship periods, as their rates of scratching and yawning did not differ between consortship and nonconsortship periods. This study shows that not only direct competitors but also other individuals monitor the behavior of sexual partners. It is likely that group-mates obtain information this way about ongoing action, and take decisions accordingly.
KeywordsMacaca tonkeana Polyadic interaction Sexual consortship Social tension Stress
We thank the managers and keepers of the Orangerie Zoo of Strasbourg and the Parco Faunistico di Piano dell’Abatino of Rieti for valuable assistance, and V. Pallage for statistical advice. We also thank the editor and 2 anonymous reviewers for constructive comments.
- Cheney, D. L., & Seyfarth, R. M. (Eds.). (1990). How monkeys see the world. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Dixson, A. F. (1998). Primate sexuality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Drapier, M., Ducoing, A. M., & Thierry, B. (1999). An experimental study of collective performance at a foraging task in Tonkean macaques. Behaviour, 136, 99–117.Google Scholar
- Hausfater, G. (1975). Dominance and reproduction in baboons. Basel: Karger.Google Scholar
- Hdry, S. B., & Whitten, P. L. (1987). Patterning of sexual activity. In B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham, & T. T. Struhsaker (Eds.), Primate societies (pp. 370–384). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Mayagoitia, L., Santillan-Doherty, A. M., Lopez-Vergara, L., & Mondragon-Ceballos, R. (1993). Ethology. Ecology and Evolution, 5, 435–446.Google Scholar
- McGregor, P. K. (Ed.). (2005). Animal communication networks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Quinn, G. P., & Keough, M. J. (2002). Experimental design and data analysis for biologists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Thierry, B. (2010). The macaques: a double-layered social organization. In C. J. Campbell, A. Fuentes, K. C. MacKinnon, S. K. Bearder, & R. M. Stumpf (Eds.), Primates in perspective (2nd ed., pp. 229–241). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Thierry, B., Anderson, J. R., Demaria, C., Desportes, C., & Petit, O. (1994). Tonkean macaque behaviour from the perspective of the evolution of Sulawesi macaques. In J. J. Roeder, B. Thierry, J. R. Anderson, & N. Herrenschmidt (Eds.), Current primatology ((pp, Vol. 2, pp. 103–117). Strasbourg: Université Louis Pasteur.Google Scholar
- Thierry, B., Heistermann, M., Aujard, F., & Hodges, J. K. (1996). Long-term data on basic reproductive parameters and evaluation of endocrine, morphological and behavioral measures for monitoring reproductive status in a group of semi-free ranging Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana). American Journal of Primatology, 39, 47–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar