Male–Male Relationships in Lion-tailed Macaques (Macaca silenus) and Bonnet Macaques (Macaca radiata)
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Socioecology suggests that female distribution in space is determined by the distribution of food resources and the male distribution is influenced by female distribution. Though studies have traditionally focused on females, males have received increasing attention in recent years. We compared male–male relationships in lion-tailed macaques and bonnet macaques. Because bonnet macaques have a high adult male:female sex ratio and are seasonal breeders whereas lion-tailed macaques have a low adult male:female sex ratio and are largely aseasonal breeders, we predicted that bonnet macaque males would be spatially and socially more tolerant of each other and would have less linear dominance relationships than lion-tailed macaques. We recorded male–male and male–female relationships in 1 group of wild macaques of each species via scan sampling and 1–0 sampling. The results revealed that lion-tailed macaque males largely remained at a distance from each other whereas bonnet macaque males remained in close proximity to one another. Lion-tailed macaque males were more agonistic toward each other whereas bonnet macaque males showed more affiliative interactions. The dominance hierarchy among lion-tailed macaque males was more linear than among bonnet macaque males. Our data support the hypothesis that the study of spatial structuring, temporality of interactions, and linearity of social relationships may contribute to a better understanding of macaque social systems.