International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 31, Issue 5, pp 693–714 | Cite as

Rondon’s Marmoset, Mico rondoni sp. n., from Southwestern Brazilian Amazonia

  • Stephen F. FerrariEmail author
  • Leonardo Sena
  • Maria Paula C. Schneider
  • José S. Silva Júnior


We describe Rondon’s marmoset (Mico rondoni sp. n.) from the Rio Jamari in the Brazilian state of Rondônia and differentiate the species from other Amazonian marmosets on the basis of morphological, genetic, and zoogeographic characteristics. Mico rondoni sp. n. is a typical bare-eared marmoset of predominantly grayish coloration and unpigmented face and cheiridia, which contrasts clearly with its more brownish and pigmented parapatric congeners Mico melanurus and M. nigriceps. Genetically, the new species is unquestionably distinct from Mico emiliae, with which it had been synonimized previously. The geographic range of the new species is defined as the area delimited by the Mamoré, Madeira, and Jiparaná rivers to the west, north, and east, respectively, and the Serra dos Pacaás Novos, to the south, where it is substituted by Mico melanurus. Depending on its exact limits, this range may cover an area of little more than 100,000 km2. A characteristic of the ecology of Mico rondoni sp. n. is its range-wide sympatry with the similarly sized tamarin Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli, which may be a key factor determining the rarity or absence of the new species from many areas within its geographic range. Its apparent scarcity may make the new species exceptionally vulnerable to the effects of the intense human colonization occurring throughout much of its known range, and provoke cause for concern for its long-term survival.


Brazilian Amazonia Callitrichidae conservation Mico rondoni sp. n. molecular genetics zoogeography 



Fieldwork was supported by Tecnosolo S.A./DHV Consultants, SEDAM-Rondônia, and the John T. and Catherine D. MacArthur Foundation. Genetic analyses were supported by CAPES. S. F. Ferrari and M. P. C. Schneider thank CNPq for research stipends (302747/2008-7 and 311121/2006-3). We thank Mário de Vivo (Museu de Zoologia), João Alves Oliveira (Museu Nacional), the National Primate Centre, and the Rio de Janeiro Primate Centre for access to specimens. We especially thank Aderson Avelar, Anthony Rylands, Cida Lopes, Ernesto Cruz, Horacio Schneider, Inocêncio Gorayeb, Izaura Muniz, Marcelo Vallinoto, and Simone Iwanaga. Special thanks to Stephen Nash for the drawing of the new species.


  1. Barros, R. M. S., Nagamachi, C. Y., & Pieczarka, J. C. (1990). Chromosomal evolution in Callithrix emiliae. Chromosoma, 99, 440–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ferrari, S. F. (1993). Ecological differentiation in the Callitrichidae. In A. B. Rylands (Ed.), Marmosets and tamarins: Systematics, behaviour, and ecology (pp. 314–328). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Ferrari, S. F. (2004). Biogeography of Amazonian primates. In S. L. Mendes & A. G. Chiarello (Eds.), A Primatologia no Brasil–8 (pp. 101–122). Santa Teresa: Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia.Google Scholar
  4. Ferrari, S. F., & Lopes, M. A. (1992a). A new species of marmoset, genus Callithrix Erxleben, 1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates), from western Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana Zoologia, 12, 1–13.Google Scholar
  5. Ferrari, S. F., & Lopes, M. A. (1992b). New data on the distribution of primates in the region of the confluence of the Jiparaná and Madeira rivers in Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil. Goeldiana Zoologia, 12, 1–12.Google Scholar
  6. Ferrari, S. F., & Lopes, M. A. (1996). Primates populations in eastern Amazonia. In M. A. Norconk, A. L. Rosenberger, & P. A. Garber (Eds.), Adaptive radiations of neotropical primates (pp. 53–68). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  7. Ferrari, S. F., & Martins, E. S. (1992). Gummivory and gut morphology in two sympatric callitrichids (Callithrix emiliae and Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli) from western Brazilian Amazonia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 88, 97–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ferrari, S. F., Iwanaga, S., Messias, M. R., Cruz Neto, E. H., Ramos, E. H., Ramos, P. C. S., & Silveira, A. P. A. (1998). Um estudo dos efeitos da colonização humana sobre as populações de mamíferos em Rondônia. Resumos XXII Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologia, 330–331.Google Scholar
  9. Ferrari, S. F., Iwanaga, S., Coutinho, P. E. G., Messias, M. R., Cruz Neto, E. H., Ramos, E. H., et al. (1999). Zoogeography of Chiropotes albinasus (Platyrrhini, Atelidae) in southwestern Amazonia. International Journal of Primatology, 20, 995–1004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hershkovitz, P. (1977). Living New World monkeys, with an introduction to primates (Vol. 1). Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Heymann, E. W., & Buchanan-Smith, H. M. (2000). The behavioural ecology of mixed-species troops of callitrichine primates. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 75, 169–190.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. IUCN (2001). 2001. Categories and criteria (version 3.1).
  13. Iwanaga, S., & Ferrari, S. F. (2002). Geographic distribution and abundance of woolly (Lagothrix cana) and spider (Ateles chamek) monkeys in southwestern Brazilian Amazonia. American Journal of Primatology, 56, 57–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Lopes, M. A., & Ferrari, S. F. (1994). Foraging behavior of a tamarin group (Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli), and interactions with marmosets (Callithrix emiliae). International Journal of Primatology, 15, 373–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Martins, E., Schneider, H., & Leão, V. F. (1987). Syntopy and troops association between Callithrix and Saguinus from Rondônia, Brazil. International Journal of Primatology, 8, 527.Google Scholar
  16. Meireles, C. M. M., Sampaio, M. I. C., Schneider, H., & Schneider, M. P. C. (1992). Protein variation, taxonomy and differentiation in five species of marmosets (genus Callithrix Erxleben, 1777). Primates, 33, 227–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mittermeier, R. A., Schwarz, M., & Ayres, J. M. (1992). A new species of marmoset, genus Callithrix Erxleben, 1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates), from the Rio Maués region, state of Amazonas, central Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana Zoologia, 14, 1–17.Google Scholar
  18. Nagamachi, C. Y., Pieczarka, J. C., Barros, R. M. S., Schwarz, M., Muniz, J. A. P. C., & Mattevi, M. S. (1996). Chromosomal relationships and phylogenetic clustering analyses on genus Callithrix, group argentata (Callitrichidae, Primates). Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics, 72, 331–338.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Porter, L. M. (2004). Forest use and activity patterns of Callimico goeldii in comparison to two sympatric tamarins, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus labiatus. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 124, 139–153.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Rylands, A. B. (1986). Ranging behaviour and habitat preference of a wild marmoset group, Callithrix humeralifer (Callitrichidae, Primates). Journal of Zoology, 210, 489–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rylands, A. B., Coimbra-Filho, A. F., & Mittermeier, R. A. (1993). Systematics, distributions and some notes on the conservation status of Callitrichidae. In A. B. Rylands (Ed.), Marmosets and tamarins: Systematics, ecology, and behaviour (pp. 11–77). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Rylands, A. B., Schneider, H., Langguth, A., Mittermeier, R. A., Groves, C. P., & Rodriguez-Luna, E. (2000). An assessment of the diversity of New World primates. Neotropical Primates, 8, 61–93.Google Scholar
  23. Sena, L. S. (1998). Filogenia do gênero Callithrix Erxeleben 1777 (Callitrichinae, Platyrrhini) baseada em seqüências do gene mitocondrial da citocromo oxidase II (COII). MSc thesis: Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém.Google Scholar
  24. Sena, L., Vallinoto, M., Sampaio, I., Schneider, H., Ferrari, S. F., & Schneider, M. P. C. (2002). Mitochondrial COII gene sequences provide new insights into the phylogeny of marmoset species groups (Callitrichidae, Primates). Folia Primatologica, 73, 240–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Silva, J. S., Jr., & Noronha, M. A. (1998). On a new species of bare-eared marmoset, genus Callithrix Erxleben, 1777, from central Amazonia, Brazil (Primates: Callitrichidae). Goeldiana Zoologia, 21, 1–28.Google Scholar
  26. Tagliaro, C. H., Moreira, M. A. M., Schneider, H., Sampaio, I., & Stanhope, M. J. (1997). Marmoset phylogenetics, conservation perspectives, and evolution of the mtDNA control region. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 14, 674–684.Google Scholar
  27. Tagliaro, C. H., Schneider, M. P. C., Schneider, H., Sampaio, I., & Stanhope, M. J. (2000). Molecular studies of Callithrix pygmaea (Primates, Platyrrhini) based on transferrin intronic and ND1 regions: implications for taxonomy and conservation. Genetics and Molecular Biology, 23, 729–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tavares, L. I., & Ferrari, S. F. (1999). Diet of the silvery marmoset (Callithrix argentata) at ECFPn: Seasonal and longitudinal variation. In P. L. B. Lisboa (Ed.), Caxiuanã: Biodiversidade e Sustentabilidade (pp. 707–719). Belém: CNPq/MCT.Google Scholar
  29. van Roosmalen, M. G. M., van Roosmalen, T., Mittermeier, R. A., & Fonseca, G. A. B. (1998). A new and distinctive species of marmoset (Callitrichidae, Primates) from the lower Rio Aripuanã, stae of Amazonas, central Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana Zoologia, 22, 1–27.Google Scholar
  30. van Roosmalen, M. G. M., van Roosmalen, T., Mittermeier, R. A., & Rylands, A. B. (2000). Two new species of marmoset, genus Callithrix Erxleben, 1777 (Callitrihidae, Primates), from the Tapajós/Madeira interfluve, south central Amazonia, Brazil. Neotropical Primates, 8, 2–19.Google Scholar
  31. van Roosmalen, M. G. M., van Roosmalen, T., & Mittermeier, R. A. (2002). A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas, 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates, 10(Supplement), 1–52.Google Scholar
  32. Vivo, M. (1985). On some monkeys from Rondônia, Brazil (Primates: Callitrichidae, Cebidae). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, 36, 103–110.Google Scholar
  33. Vivo, M. (1991). Taxonomia de Callithrix Erxleben, 1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates). Belo Horizonte: Fundação Biodiversitas.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen F. Ferrari
    • 1
    Email author
  • Leonardo Sena
    • 2
  • Maria Paula C. Schneider
    • 3
  • José S. Silva Júnior
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversidade Federal de SergipeSão CristóvãoBrazil
  2. 2.Department of PathologyUniversidade do Estado do ParáBelémBrazil
  3. 3.Department of GeneticsUniversidade Federal do ParáBelémBrazil
  4. 4.Department of ZoologyMuseu Paraense Emílio GoeldiBelémBrazil

Personalised recommendations