Vocal Repertoire of Cebus capucinus: Acoustic Structure, Context, and Usage
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Researchers studying nonhuman primate vocal repertoires suggest that convergent environmental, social, and motivational factors account for intra- and interspecific vocal variation. We provide a detailed overview of the vocal repertoire of white-faced capuchins, including acoustic analyses and contextual information of vocal production and vocal usage by different age-sex classes in social interactions. The repertoire is a mixture of graded and discrete vocalizations. In addition, there is general support for structural variation in vocalizations with changes in arousal level. We also identified several combined vocalizations, which might represent variable underlying motivations. Lastly, by including data on the social contexts and production of vocalizations by different age-sex classes, we provide preliminary information about the function of vocalizations in social interactions for individuals of different rank, age, and sex. Future studies are necessary to explore the function of combined vocalizations and how the social function of vocalizations relate to their acoustic structure, because social use of vocalizations may play an important role in shaping vocal evolution.