International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 153–171 | Cite as

Ranging Behavior and Possible Correlates of Pair-Living in Southeastern Avahis (Madagascar)

  • Ivan Norscia
  • Silvana M. Borgognini-Tarli


Researchers have proposed several hypotheses to explain pair-living in primates. In particular, when males are not involved in direct parental care, pair-living may be related to female dispersal, infanticide prevention, or male mate/resource defense. We aimed to evaluate, through a better understanding of the ranging patterns of avahis, which hypotheses may best account for pair-living in these nocturnal lemurs. We collected focal observations over 26 nights, June–September 2004, in a littoral forest (Sainte Luce, southeastern Madagascar) on 4 adult radiocollared avahis [Avahi laniger (Tattersall, I. (1982). The Primates of Madagascar. Columbia University Press, New York.) or Avahi meridionalis (Zaramody in Primate Reports 74:9–22, 2006)]. We followed 2 males and 2 females from 2 groups: B, a male-female couple, and A, comprising the parental pair and 1-yr-old female offspring. The adult females birthed in August. We recorded resting and feeding tree points (via global positioning system) for home range calculation through minimum convex polygon and kernel methods. We provide the first quantitative information on the ranging behavior of 2 male and 2 female avahis. Home range/daily path length values (means) are higher than the ones previously reported for the same and other folivorous pair-living lemur species. On average, the 2 females spent more time feeding and traveled shorter distances than the 2 males did. Male–female cohesion (mean values), possibly enhanced by offspring presence, was higher in A and after births than in B and before births, respectively. Although male avahis may be forced into pair-living owing to energy constraints related to size, locomotion, and diet, females might accept pair-living in exchange for indirect territory defense and mate guarding.


Avahi laniger Avahi meridionalis Folivore Monogamy Woolly lemur 



We thank the Commission Tripartite du Département des Eaux et Forêt, the Parque Botanique et Zoologique de Tsimbasasa, and the Université d’Antananarivo for research permits; Jean-Baptiste Ramanamanjato, Manon Vincelette, and the staff of the conservation section of QMM for providing support for our research; Givet, Kadoff , Roline, and Josette, for their invaluable help in the field; and the people of the villages of Ambandriky and S. Luce for providing assistance when needed.

We also thank Joerg Ganzhorn for the possibility of doing this research in the field (part of the Ph.D. program of I. Norscia), Giuseppe Donati for opening the door of Sainte Luce, Stacey Schmidt for the first linguistic revision, Barbara Leporini for data elaboration support, and Elisabetta Palagi for providing useful discussion on the manuscript. Finally, we thank the 2 anonymous reviewers who improved the manuscript with their comments and suggestions. This research was partly funded by MIUR.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Biologia and Centro Interdipartimentale, Museo di Storia Naturale e del TerritorioUniversità di PisaCalciItaly

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