Seasonal Variation in the Activity Patterns and Time Budgets of Trachypithecus francoisi in the Nonggang Nature Reserve, China
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- Zhou, Q., Wei, F., Huang, C. et al. Int J Primatol (2007) 28: 657. doi:10.1007/s10764-007-9144-6
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Activity patterns and time budgets are 2 important aspects of animal behavior that researchers use to investigate ecological influences on individual behavior. We collected data on activity patterns and time budgets in 1 group of François’ langurs (Trachypithecus francoisi) from August 2003 to July 2004 in the Nonggang Nature Reserve, Guangxi Province, China, via instantaneous scan sampling method with 15-min intervals. The diurnal activity pattern of François’ langurs showed morning and afternoon feeding peaks, with a midday resting peak. Seasonal change was apparent in the activity pattern: 2 significant feeding peaks occurred in the dry season and only 1 significant feeding peak in the rainy season. The group spent an average of 51.5% of the daytime resting. Feeding and moving accounted on average for 23.1% and 17.3% of the activity budget, respectively. Subjects spent little time on social activities, averaging 2% for grooming and 5.5% for playing. Their time budgets showed significant seasonal variation: they spent a greater proportion of time on feeding and less time on resting and grooming in the dry season than in the rainy season. They also differed among different sex-age classes: immatures spent more time playing, whereas adults devoted more time to resting, feeding, and grooming. Correlations between time budgets and food items or food availability clearly indicated that François’ langurs might adopt an energy-maximizing strategy when preferred foods were scarce in the dry season.