International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 28, Issue 3, pp 657–671 | Cite as

Seasonal Variation in the Activity Patterns and Time Budgets of Trachypithecus francoisi in the Nonggang Nature Reserve, China

  • Qihai Zhou
  • Fuwen WeiEmail author
  • Chengming Huang
  • Ming Li
  • Baoping Ren
  • Bang Luo
Special Issue: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation of Colobine Monkeys


Activity patterns and time budgets are 2 important aspects of animal behavior that researchers use to investigate ecological influences on individual behavior. We collected data on activity patterns and time budgets in 1 group of François’ langurs (Trachypithecus francoisi) from August 2003 to July 2004 in the Nonggang Nature Reserve, Guangxi Province, China, via instantaneous scan sampling method with 15-min intervals. The diurnal activity pattern of François’ langurs showed morning and afternoon feeding peaks, with a midday resting peak. Seasonal change was apparent in the activity pattern: 2 significant feeding peaks occurred in the dry season and only 1 significant feeding peak in the rainy season. The group spent an average of 51.5% of the daytime resting. Feeding and moving accounted on average for 23.1% and 17.3% of the activity budget, respectively. Subjects spent little time on social activities, averaging 2% for grooming and 5.5% for playing. Their time budgets showed significant seasonal variation: they spent a greater proportion of time on feeding and less time on resting and grooming in the dry season than in the rainy season. They also differed among different sex-age classes: immatures spent more time playing, whereas adults devoted more time to resting, feeding, and grooming. Correlations between time budgets and food items or food availability clearly indicated that François’ langurs might adopt an energy-maximizing strategy when preferred foods were scarce in the dry season.


activity patterns François’ langur seasonality time budgets Trachypithecus francoisi 



CAS Innovative Research International Partnership Project (CXTDS2005-4), National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (30125006) to F.-W Wei, and BP Conservation Programme (Bronze Award, 2003, UK) funded the project. We thank H.-S. Huang, S.-Y. Liu, X. Wang, and J.-Y. Bai for assistance in the field, and Prof. Z.-M. Shu, Guangxi Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, for identifying plant specimens. The Guangxi Forestry Bureau and Nonggang Nature Reserve Administration Bureau provided much assistance. We thank Prof. C. Groves for language editing, 2 anonymous reviewers for critical comments, and Dr.. R. H. Tuttle for careful editorial work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qihai Zhou
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Fuwen Wei
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chengming Huang
    • 2
  • Ming Li
    • 1
  • Baoping Ren
    • 1
  • Bang Luo
    • 2
  1. 1.Key Laboratory for Animal Ecology and Conservation BiologyInstitute of Zoology,the Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.College of Life ScienceGuangxi Normal UniversityGuangxiChina
  3. 3.Graduate School of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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