International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 28, Issue 3, pp 593–606 | Cite as

Influence of Chimpanzee Predation on Associations Between Red Colobus and Red-tailed Monkeys at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda

Special Issue: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation of Colobine Monkeys


Colobines often associate with cercopithecines at various African sites. Such polyspecific associations presumably have an antipredation function. At Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus) spend considerable time in association with red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius), and they are also heavily hunted by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). I conducted behavioral observations and playback experiments to test the hypothesis that red colobus and red-tailed monkeys obtain mutual protection and predator-related benefits by associating. Despite high chimpanzee hunting pressure on red colobus and much lower hunting pressure on red-tailed monkeys, red-tailed monkeys initiate, maintain, and terminate the associations. The results suggest that rather than providing red colobus with protection against chimpanzees, the associations occur mostly because they protect red-tailed monkeys against predation by eagles.


hunting Kibale National Park polyspecific associations red colobus monkeys red-tailed monkeys 



I thank David Watts and John Mitani for their help with this study, their constructive comments and much more. Tom Struhsaker, Colin Chapman, and 1 anonymous reviewer provided valuable comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. In addition, I particularly thank Stephanie F. Anestis, Jeremiah S. Lwanga, and Marianne Pouplier. Furthermore, my thanks go to Tammy Windfelder, and the people at Ngogo, all of whom had some kind of impact at some point in time on this study: Businge Charles, Kabagambe Dominique, Magambo Norris, Magoba Adolph, Mbabazi Godfrey, Ndanhizi Lawrence, Tibisimwa James, and Tumusiime Alfred. The Leakey Foundation, the National Science Foundation (dissertation improvement grant BCS-0109999), and the Enders Foundation funded the study. The Office of the President in Uganda, the National Council for Science and Technology in Uganda, Ugandan Wildlife Authority, Makerere University Biological Field Station, and Yale’s Animal Care and Use Committee granted permission.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Yale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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