Influence of Chimpanzee Predation on Associations Between Red Colobus and Red-tailed Monkeys at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda
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Colobines often associate with cercopithecines at various African sites. Such polyspecific associations presumably have an antipredation function. At Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus) spend considerable time in association with red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius), and they are also heavily hunted by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). I conducted behavioral observations and playback experiments to test the hypothesis that red colobus and red-tailed monkeys obtain mutual protection and predator-related benefits by associating. Despite high chimpanzee hunting pressure on red colobus and much lower hunting pressure on red-tailed monkeys, red-tailed monkeys initiate, maintain, and terminate the associations. The results suggest that rather than providing red colobus with protection against chimpanzees, the associations occur mostly because they protect red-tailed monkeys against predation by eagles.