Behavioral Adaptation of Pan troglodytes troglodytes

  • Kay H. Farmer
  • Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith
  • Aliette Jamart
Article

Abstract

As wild primate populations decline, numbers of orphaned primates, sanctuaries, and attempts to release primates back to the natural environment increase. Release projects frequently are poorly documented despite IUCN guidelines recommending post-release monitoring and systematic data collection as central to the process. Since 1996, Habitat Ecologique et Liberté des Primates (HELP) has been releasing wild-born orphaned chimpanzees into natural habitat in the Conkouati-Douli National Park, Republic of Congo. HELP developed a post-release monitoring system as an integral component. We present activity budgets and diet of released chimpanzees, and compared them to those of wild chimpanzee, as primary indicators of successful release. Feeding, moving, and resting dominated activity budgets, reflecting the overall patterns in wild populations. Diet was diverse and dominated by fruit, and the released chimpanzees showed specialization on a smaller number of species, as in many wild communities. The high survival rates of the chimpanzees and overall success of the release program are attributed to careful planning and post-release support facilitated via the monitoring process. Systematic post-release data collection monitoring has confirmed that wild-born chimpanzees can adjust behaviorally and nutritionally to the wild. Survival statistics of the reintroduced chimpanzees—confirmed 56%, possible 88%— reflect the behavioral adaptability.

KEY WORDS

behavioral adaptation chimpanzee pan troglodytes troglodytes reintroduction 

REFERENCES

  1. Boesch, C., and Boesch-Achermann, H. (2000). The Chimpanzees of the Tai Forest —Behavioural Ecology and Evolution, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Borner, M. (1985). The rehabilitated chimpanzees of Rubondo Island. Oryx 19: 151–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brewer, S. (1978). The Forest Dwellers. Collins, London.Google Scholar
  4. Cowlishaw, G., and Dunbar, R. (2000). Primate Conservation Biology. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  5. Doran, D. (1997). Influence of seasonality on activity patterns, feeding behaviour, ranging, and grouping patterns in Tai chimpanzees. Int. J. Primatol. 18(2): 183–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Doumenge, C. (1992). La Reserve de Conkouati: Congo Le secteur sud-ouest. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  7. Dowsett, R. J. (1991). Meterological and hydrological data from the lower Kouilou Basin, Congo. In Dowsett, R. J., and Dowsett-Lemaire, F. (eds.), Flore et Faune du Bassin du Kouilou (Congo) et Leur Exploitation. Tauraco Press, Jupille-Liege, Belgium, pp. 7–16.Google Scholar
  8. Dunbar, R. I. M. (1988). Primate Social Systems. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  9. Farmer, K. H. (2002a). Pan African Sanctuary Alliance: Status and range of activities for great ape conservation. Am. J. Primatol. 58: 117–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Farmer, K. H. (2002b). The Behaviour and Adaptation of Reintroduced Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in the Republic of Congo, Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis, University of Stirling, Scotland.Google Scholar
  11. Farmer, K. H., and Courage, C. (in press). Sanctuaries and reintroduction: A role in gorilla conservation? In Stoinski, T., Steklis, D., and Mehlman, P. (eds.), Conservation in the 21 st Century: Gorillas as a Case Study. Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Farmer, K. H., and Jamart, A. (2002). Habitat Ecologique et Liberté des Primates—a case study of chimpanzee reintroduction. In Soorae, P. S., and Baker, L. R. (eds.), Re-introduction News: Special Primate Issue, Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group, Abu Dhabi, UAE. No. 21:16–18.Google Scholar
  13. Fawcett, K. A. (2000). Female Relationships and Food Availability in a Forest Community of chimpanzees, Unpubl. PhD thesis, University of Edinburgh, Scotland.Google Scholar
  14. Ghiglieri, M. P. (1984). The Chimpanzees of Kibale Forest. A Field Study of Ecology and Social Structure. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Goodall, J. (1965). Chimpanzees of the Gombe Stream Reserve. In DeVore, I. (ed.), Primate Behaviour. Field Studies of Monkeys and Apes. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, pp. 425–473.Google Scholar
  16. Goossens, B., Setchell, J. M., Tchidongo, E., Dilambaka, E., Vidal, C., Ancrenaz, M., and Jamart, A. (2005). Survival, interactions with wild conspecifics and reproduction in 37 chimpanzees released in the wild. Biol. Conserv. 123(4): 413–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hannah, A. C., and McGrew, W. C. (1991). Rehabilitation of captive chimpanzees. In Box, H. O. (ed.), Primate Responses to Environmental Change. Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 167–186.Google Scholar
  18. Hecketsweiler, P., and Ikonga Mokoko, J. (1991). La Reserve de Conkouati: Congo le Secteur Sud-est. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  19. Hilton-Taylor, C. (2000). The 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  20. Hladik, C. M. (1973). Alimentation et activité d’un groupe de chimpanzés reintroduits en forêt Gabonaise. Terre Vie 27: 343–413.Google Scholar
  21. Hladik, C. M. (1977). Chimpanzees of Gabon and chimpanzees of Gombe: Some comparative data on the diet. In Clutton-Brock, T. H. (ed.), Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes. Academic Press, London, pp. 481–501.Google Scholar
  22. Kierulff, M. C. M., de Oliveira, P. P., Beck, B. B., and Martins, A. (2002). Reintroduction and translocation as conservation tools for golden lion tamarins. In Kleiman, D. G., and Rylands, A. B. (eds.), Lion Tamarins of Brazil: Biology and Conservation. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, pp. 271–282.Google Scholar
  23. Maisels, F., and Onononga, J. R. (2000). Conkouati-Douli National Park—Conservation Status, Jan/Feb 2000 Large Mammals and Human Impact. Unpublished report by NYZS/The Wildlife Conservation Society, Republic of Congo.Google Scholar
  24. Marsden née Brewer, S. (1998). The Rehabilitation of Captive Chimpanzees into the Wild in Niokolo Koba National Park, Senegal, Unpubl. report.Google Scholar
  25. Martin, P., and Bateson, P. (1998). Measuring Behaviour—An Introductory Guide. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  26. McGrew, W. C. (1992). Chimpanzee Material Culture: Implications for Human Evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  27. Mills, W., Cress, D., and Rosen, N. (2005). Pan African Sanctuary Alliance (PASA) 2005 Workshop Report, Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (SSC/IUCN), Apple Valley, MN.Google Scholar
  28. Moutsamboté, J. M., Yumoto, T., Mitani, M., Nishihara, T., Suzuki, S., and Kuroda, S. (1994). Vegetation and list of plant species identified in the Noubale-Ndoki Forest, Congo. Tropics 3: 277–293.Google Scholar
  29. Newton-Fisher, N. E. (1999). The diet of chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Afric. J. Ecol. 37: 344–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nishida, T., Kano, T., Goodall, J., McGrew, W. C., and Nakamura, M. (1999). Ethogram and ethnography of Mahale chimpanzees. Anthropol. Sci. 107(2): 141–188.Google Scholar
  31. Oates, J. (1996). African Primates Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  32. Reynolds, V., and Reynolds, F. (1965). Chimpanzees of the Budongo Forest. In DeVore, I. (ed.), Primate Behaviour. Field Studies of Monkeys and Apes, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, pp. 368–424.Google Scholar
  33. Rosen, N., Cress, D., Cox, D., Montgomery, C., and Townsend, S. (eds.). (2003). Pan African Sanctuaries Alliance 2003 Workshop Report, Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (SSC/IUCN), Apple Valley, MN.Google Scholar
  34. Sabater-Pi, J. (1979). Feeding behaviour and diet of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in the Okorobiko Mountains of Rio Muni (West Africa). Z. Tierpsychol. 50: 265–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Soorae, P. S., and Baker, L. R. (eds.) (2002). Re-introduction NEWS: Special Primate Issue, Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group, Abu Dhabi, UAE. No. 21: 60 pp.Google Scholar
  36. Struhsaker, T. T., and Siex, K. S. (1998). Translocation and introduction of the Zanzibar red colobus monkey: Success and failure with an endangered island endemic. Oryx 32(4): 277–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Teleki, G. P. (1977). Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Routine Activities Performed by Chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania: An Ethological Study of Adaptive Strategy. Unpubl. PhD thesis, Pennsylvania State University.Google Scholar
  38. Teleki, G. P. (1981). The omnivorous diet and eclectic feeding habits of chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. In Harding, R. S. O., and Teleki, G. (eds.), Omnivorous Primates. Gathering and Hunting in Human Evolution. Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 303–343.Google Scholar
  39. Treves, A., and Naughton-Treves, L. (1994). Behaviour of a captive, wild-born chimpanzee before and after release in a habituated community of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). In Proceedings of the 1994 Chimpanzoo Conference Ridgefield, Can Reintroduction Succeed for Captive Chimpanzees? Jane Goodall Institute, Connecticut, pp. 79–96.Google Scholar
  40. Treves, A., and Naughton-Treves, L. (1997). Case study of a chimpanzee recovered from poachers and temporarily released with wild conspecifics. Primates 38(3): 315–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tutin, C. E. G., and Fernandez, M. (1993). Composition of the diet chimpanzees and comparisons with that of sympatric lowland gorillas in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon. Am. J. Primatol. 30: 195–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tutin, C. E. G., Ancrenaz, M., Paredes, J., Vacher-Vallas, M., Vidal, C., Goossens, B., Bruford, M. and Jamart, A. (2001). Conservation biology framework for the release of wild-born orphaned chimpanzee into the Conkouati Reserve, Congo. Conserv. Biol. 15(5): 1247–1257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tutin, C. E. G., White, L. J. T., Williamson, E. A., Fernandez, M., and McPherson, G. (1994). List of plant species identified in the northern part of the Lopé Reserve, Gabon. Tropics 3: 249–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Warren, S., and Swan, R. A. (2002). Reintroduction of orangutans in Indonesia. In Soorae, P. S., and Baker, L. R. (eds.), Re-introduction NEWS: Special Primate Issue, Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group, Abu Dhabi, UAE. No. 24: 26 pp.Google Scholar
  45. Whiten, A., Goodall, J., McGrew, W. C., Nishida, T., Reynolds, V., Sugiyama, Y., Tutin, C. E. G., Wrangham, R. W., and Boesch, C. (1999). Cultures in chimpanzees. Nature 399: 682–685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wrangham, R. W. (1975). The Behavioural Ecology of Chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Unpubl. PhD thesis, University of Cambridge, England.Google Scholar
  47. Wrangham, R. W., Chapman, C. A., Clark, A. P., and Isabirye-Basuta, G. (1996). Social ecology of Kanyawara chimpanzees: Implications for understanding the costs of great ape groups. In McGrew, W. C., Marchant, L. F., and Nishida, T. (eds.), Great Ape Societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 45–57.Google Scholar
  48. Yumoto, T., Yamagiwa, J., Mwanza, N., and Maruhashi, T. (1994). List of plant species identified in Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Zaire. Tropics 3: 295–308.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kay H. Farmer
    • 1
  • Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith
    • 1
  • Aliette Jamart
    • 2
  1. 1.Scottish Primate Research Group, Department of PsychologyUniversity of Stirling Stirling FK9 4LAScotlandUnited Kingdom
  2. 2.Habitat Ecologique et Liberté des PrimatesPointe-NoireRepublic of Congo

Personalised recommendations