Advertisement

International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 127–145 | Cite as

Monkey Abundance and Social Structure in Two High-Elevation Forest Reserves in the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania

  • Andrew R. MarshallEmail author
  • J. Elmer Topp-Jørgensen
  • Henry Brink
  • Eibleis Fanning
Article

Abstract

The effects of human activity on population and social structure are a pantropical concern for primate conservation. We compare census data and social group counts from two forests in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. The main aim is to relate differences within and between the forests to current theory on the effect of human disturbance on primate abundance and group size. The survey reveals the presence of the restricted-range red colobus, Procolobus gordonorum, in New Dabaga/Ulangambi Forest Reserve (NDUFR). The primate community of NDUFR is impoverished compared to that in Ndundulu forest. Red colobus and black-and-white colobus (Colobus angolensis palliatus) abundance and group size are lowest in NDUFR. Fission-fusion of red colobus social groups may be occurring in previously logged areas of both forests. Our observations are consistent with current theory on the effect of habitat degradation and hunting on primates, but the relative effects of the 2 factors could not be differentiated. We pooled the results with previous data to show that abundance of red colobus in the Udzungwa Mountains is lowest at high elevations. Low red colobus group sizes appear to be related to human activity rather than elevation. Black-and-white colobus and Sykes monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis) show no relationship with elevation. Future studies will require more detailed information on vegetation, diet and ranging patterns to interpret fully intraspecific variation in population demography and social structure in the Udzungwa Mountains.

Key words

altitude transect logging bushmeat Eastern Arc 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aldrich-Blake, F. P. G. (1970). Problems of social structure in forest monkeys. In Crook, J. H. (ed.), Social Behaviour in Birds and Mammals, Academic Press, London and New York, pp. 79–101.Google Scholar
  2. Beeson, M., and Lea, S. E. G. (1994). Mature leaf chemistry of two Afro-montane forests in relation to feeding by forest guenons (Cercopithecus spp.). Afr. J. Ecol. 32: 317–326.Google Scholar
  3. Bryant, J. P., Chapin, F. S., III, and Klein, D. P. (1983). Carbon/nutrient balance of boreal plants in relation to vertebrate herbivory. Oikos 40: 357–368.Google Scholar
  4. Butynski, T. M. (1990). Comparative ecology of blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis) in high and low density subpopulations. Ecol. Monogr. 60(1): 1–26.Google Scholar
  5. Butynski, T. M., Ehardt, C. L., and Struhsaker, T. T. (1998). Notes on two dwarf galagos (Galagoides udzungwensis and Galagoides orinus) in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. Prim. Conserv. 18: 69–75.Google Scholar
  6. Caldecott, J. O. (1980). Habitat quality and populations of two sympatric gibbons (Hylobatidae) on a mountain in Malaya. Folia Primatol. 33: 291–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chapman, C. A., Balcomb, S. R., Gillespie, T. R., Skorupa, J. P., and Struhsaker, T. T. (2000). Long-term effects of logging on African primate communities: A 28-year comparison from Kibale National Park, Uganda. Conserv. Biol. 14(1): 207–217.Google Scholar
  8. Chapman, C. A., Chapman, L. J., and Gillespie, T. R. (2002). Scale issues in the study of primate foraging: Red colobus of Kibale National Park. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 117(4): 349–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1972). Feeding and Ranging Behaviour of the Red Colobus, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  10. Cowlishaw, G., and Dunbar, R. (2000). Primate Conservation Biology, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  11. Crook, J. H. (1970). The socio-ecology of primates. In Crook, J. H. (ed.), Social Behaviour in Birds and Mammals, Academic Press, London and New York, pp. 103–166.Google Scholar
  12. Day, R. W., and Quinn, G. P. (1989). Comparisons of treatments after an analysis of variance in ecology. Ecological Monographs 59(4): 433–463.Google Scholar
  13. Decker, B. S. (1994). Endangered primates in the Selous Game Reserve and an imminent threat to their habitat. Oryx 28(3): 183–190.Google Scholar
  14. Decker, B. S. (1996). Notes on the behavioural ecology of the Iringa red colobus Procolobus badius gordonorum. Afr. Prim. 2(1): 15–18.Google Scholar
  15. Dinesen, L., and Lehmberg, T. (1996). Problem Identification in Udekwa (Iringa District, Tanzania) in Relation to the Conservation of Forest and Biodiversity. Project identification report for BirdLife Denmark and Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  16. Dinesen, L., Lehmberg, T., Rahner, M. C., and Fjeldsa, J. (2001). Conservation priorities for the forests of the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania, based on primates, duikers and birds. Biolog. Conserv. 99(2): 223–236.Google Scholar
  17. Dudt, J. F., and Shure, D. J. (1994). The influence of light and nutrients on foliar phenolics and insect herbivory. Ecology 75: 86–98.Google Scholar
  18. Durham, N. M. (1975) Some ecological, distributional, and group behavioral features of Atelinae in southern Peru: with commetns on interspecific relations. In Tuttle, R. H. (ed.), Socioecology and Psychology of Primates, Mouton Publishers, The Hague, TheNetherlands, and Paris, France, pp. 87–101.Google Scholar
  19. Ehardt, C. L. (1999–2000). The endemic primates of the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. Afr. Prim. 4(1/2): 15–26.Google Scholar
  20. Ehardt, C. L., Struhsaker, T. T., and Butynski, T. M. (2000). Conservation of the Endangered Primates of the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania: Surveys, Habitat Assessment, and Long-Term Monitoring. Unpublished report, Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, and World Wide Fund for Nature, Tanzania.Google Scholar
  21. Ehardt, C. L., Struhsaker, T. T., and Butynski, T. M. (2001). Conservation of the Endangered Primates of the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania, Phase II: Population Survey and Census, Demography and Socioecology. Report submitted to the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, Conservation International.Google Scholar
  22. Fimbel, C., Vedder, A., Dierenfeld, E., and Mulindahabi, F. (2001). An ecological basis for large group size in Colobus angolensis in the Nyungwe Forest, Rwanda. Afr. J. Ecol. 39: 83–92.Google Scholar
  23. Gillespie, T. R., and Chapman, C. A. (2001). Determinants of group size in the red colobus monkey (Procolobus badius): An evaluation of the generality of the ecological constraints model. Behav. Ecol. and Sociobiol. 50: 329–338.Google Scholar
  24. Goss-Custard, J. D., Dunbar, R. I. M., and Aldrich-Blake, F. P. G. (1972). Survival, mating and rearing strategies in the evolution of primate social structure. Folia Primatol. 17: 1–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Groves, C. P. (1973). Notes on the ecology and behaviour of the Angola colobus (Colobus angolensis P.L. Sclater 1860) in N.E. Tanzania. Folia Primatol. 20: 12–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Hall, J. B. (1988). Reconnaissance Vegetation Survey of the Luhombero Massif, Iringa Region, Tanzania. Department of Forestry and Wood Science, University College of North Wales, Bangor, UK.Google Scholar
  27. Hanya, G., Noma, N., and Agetsuma, N. (2003). Altitudinal and seasonal variations in the diet of Japanese macaques in Yakushima. Primates 44: 51–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Hilton-Taylor, C. (Compiler) (2000).2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  29. Homewood, K. M., and Rodgers, W. A. (1981). A previously undescribed mangabey from southern Tanzania. Int. J. Primatol. 2(1): 47–55.Google Scholar
  30. Klein, L. L., and Klein, D. B. (1977). Feeding behaviour of the Colombian spider monkey. In Clutton-Brock, T. H. (ed.), Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes. Academic Press, London, New York and San Francisco, USA, pp. 153–181.Google Scholar
  31. Marshall, A. R., Fazey, I., Topp-Jø rgensen, J. E., and Brink, H. (2001a). Tree communities and diversity in New Dabaga/Ulangambi Forest Reserve. In Frontier Tanzania, New Dabaga/Ulangambi Forest Reserve—Botanical and Forest Use Report. Udzungwa Mountains Forest Management and Biodiversity Conservation Project, MEMA, Iringa, Tanzania, pp. 25–37.Google Scholar
  32. Marshall, A. R., Fazey, I., Topp-Jørgensen, J. E., and Brink, H. (2001b). Tree communities and diversity in West Kilombero Scarp Forest Reserve. In Frontier Tanzania, West Kilombero Scarp Forest Reserve—Botanical and Forest Use Report. Udzungwa Mountains Forest Management and Biodiversity Conservation Project, MEMA, Iringa, Tanzania, pp. 27–45.Google Scholar
  33. Marshall, A. R., Brink, H., and Topp-Jø rgensen, J. E. (2001c). Effect of bushfires on forest expansion in West Kilombero Scarp Forest Reserve. In Frontier Tanzania, West Kilombero Scarp Forest Reserve—Botanical and Forest Use Report. Udzungwa Mountains Forest Management and Biodiversity Conservation Project, MEMA, Iringa, Tanzania, pp. 83–101.Google Scholar
  34. Mitani, J. C., Struhsaker, T. T., and Lwanga, J. S. (2000). Primate community dynamics in old growth forest over 23.5 years at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda: Implications for conservation and census methods. Int. J. Primatol. 21(2): 269–286.Google Scholar
  35. Mittermeier, R. A. (1986). A global overview of primate conservation. In Else, J. G., and Lee, P. C. (eds.), Primate Ecology and Conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 325–340.Google Scholar
  36. Mittermeier, R. A. (1987). Effects of hunting on rain forest primates. In Marsh, C. W., and Mittermeier, R. A. (eds.), Primate Conservation in the Tropical Rain Forest. A. R. Liss, Inc., New York, USA, pp. 109–146.Google Scholar
  37. Moyer, D. C. (1992). Report on the Natural Resources Consultancy for the Udzungwa Forest Management Project Preparation Mission—Volume III, Annex 4. Udzungwa Forest Management Project, Dept. of Zoology and Marine Biology, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Dept. of Zoology and Physiology, Louisiana State University, USA.Google Scholar
  38. Munyuku, F. C. N. (1993). A Report on New Kidabaga/Ulangambi Forest Reserve inventory Kilolo division, Iringa district. Hifadhi ya Mazingira (HIMA) supported by Iringa Regional and District Forest Offices and DANIDA.Google Scholar
  39. Myers, N., Mittermeier, R. A., Mittermeier, C. G., de Fonseca, G. A. B., and Kent, J. (2000). Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853–858.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Nielsen, M. R. (2002). Causes of Unsustainable Resource Exploitation in the Udzungwa Mountains. 1. A cases study of subsistence poaching in New Dabaga Ulangambi Forest Reserve, Tanzania. Unpublished Report, University of Copenhagen, Zoological Museum, Denmark.Google Scholar
  41. Oates, J. F. (1996). Habitat alteration, hunting and the conservation of folivorous primates in African forests. Austr. J. Ecol. 21(1): 1–9.Google Scholar
  42. Oates, J. F., Abedi-Lartey, M., Scott McGraw, W., Struhsaker, T. T., and Whitesides, G. H. (2000). Extinction of a West African red colobus monkey. Conserv. Biol. 14(5): 1526–1532.Google Scholar
  43. Pedersen, U. B., and Topp-Jø rgensen, J. E. (2000). The Impact of Hunting on Three Primate Species in Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.Google Scholar
  44. Plumptre, A. J., and Reynolds, V. (1994). The effect of selective logging on the primate populations in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. J. Appl. Ecol. 31: 631–641.Google Scholar
  45. Rodgers, W. A. (1981). The distribution and conservation status of colobus monkeys in Tanzania. Primates 22(1): 33–45.Google Scholar
  46. Rodgers, W. A., and Homewood, K. M. (1982). Biological values and conservation prospects for the forests and primate populations of the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. Biol. Conser. 24: 285–304.Google Scholar
  47. Rodgers, W. A., Homewood, K. M., and Hall, J. B. (1980). The railway and a rare colobus monkey. Oryx 25(5): 491–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Siex, K. S., and Struhsaker, T. T. (1999). Ecology of the Zanzibar red colobus monkey: Demographic variability and habitat stability. Int. J. Primatol. 20(2): 163–192.Google Scholar
  49. Skorupa, J. P. (1986). Responses of rainforest primates to selective logging in Kibale Forest, Uganda. In Benirschke, K. (ed.), Primates: The Road to Self-Sustaining Populations. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 57–70.Google Scholar
  50. Skorupa, J. P. (1988). The Effects of Selective Timber Harvesting on Rain-forest Primates in Kibale Forest, Uganda. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis, USA.Google Scholar
  51. Sokal, R. R., and Rohlf, F. J. (1995) Biometry: The Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research, 3rd edition. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.Google Scholar
  52. Struhsaker, T. T. (1975). The Red Colobus Monkey, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  53. Struhsaker, T. T., and Oates, J. F. (1975). Comparison of the behavior and ecology of red colobus and black-and-white colobus monkeys in Uganda: a summary. In Tuttle, R. H. (ed.), Socio-ecology and Psychology of Primates, Mouton, The Hague, The Netherlands, and Paris, France, pp. 103–123.Google Scholar
  54. Struhsaker, T. T. (1997). Ecology of an African Rainforest: Logging in Kibale and the Conflict between Conservation and Exploitation. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, USA.Google Scholar
  55. Struhsaker, T. T. (1999). Primate communities in Africa: The consequence of long-term evolution or the artefact of recent hunting? In Fleagle, J. G., Janson, C. H., and Reed, K. E. (eds.), Primate Communities, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 289–294.Google Scholar
  56. Struhsaker, T. T. (2000). The effects of predation and habitat quality on the socioecology of African Monkeys: lessons from the islands of Bioko and Zanzibar. In Whitehead, P. F., and Jolly, C. J. (eds.), Old World Monkeys, Cambridge University Press, pp. 393–430.Google Scholar
  57. Struhsaker, T. T., Marshall, A. R., Detwiler, K. M., Siex, K., Ehardt, C. L., Lisbjerg, D. D., and Butynski, T. M. (2004). Demographic variation among the Udzungwa red colobus (Procolobus gordonorum) in relation to gross ecological and sociological parameters. Int. J. Primatol. 25(3): 615–658.Google Scholar
  58. Struhsaker, T. T., and Leland, L. (1979). Socioecology of five sympatric monkey species in the Kibale Forest, Uganda. In Rosenblatt, J. S., Hinde, R. A., Beer, C., and Busnel, M. C. (eds.), Advances in the Study of Behavior, vol. 9. Academic Press, New York, pp. 159–228.Google Scholar
  59. Struhsaker, T. T., and Leland, L. (1980). Observations on two rare and endangered populations of red colobus monkeys in East Africa: Colobus badius gordonorum and Colobus badius kirkii. Afr. J. Ecol. 18: 191–216.Google Scholar
  60. Terborgh, J., and Janson, C. H. (1986). The socioecology of primate groups. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 17: 111–135.Google Scholar
  61. Waser, P. (1977) Feding, ranging and group size in the mangabey Cercocebus albigena. In Clutton-Brock, T. H. (ed.), Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes, Academic Press, London, New York and San Francisco, pp. 183–221.Google Scholar
  62. Wasser, S. K. (1993). The socioecology of interspecific associations among the monkeys of the Mwanihana rain forest, Tanzania: a biogeographic perspective. In Lovett, J. C., and Wasser, S. K. (eds.), Biogeography and Ecology of the Rainforests of Eastern Africa, Cambridge University Press, pp. 267–280.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew R. Marshall
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • J. Elmer Topp-Jørgensen
    • 2
  • Henry Brink
    • 2
  • Eibleis Fanning
    • 2
  1. 1.Environment Department, Centre for Ecology Law and PolicyUniversity of YorkHeslington, YorkUK
  2. 2.Society for Environmental ExplorationLondonUK

Personalised recommendations