Advertisement

Multilevel Investigation of Students’ Self-regulation Processes in Learning Science: Classroom Learning Environment and Teacher Effectiveness

  • Sündüs Yerdelen
  • Semra Sungur
Article

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the role of students’ classroom learning environment perceptions and teacher effectiveness in 7th grade students’ self-regulation in science classes. Students’ self-regulation was examined in terms of self-efficacy, achievement goals, and metacognitive strategy use which constitute important components of self-regulation. The relations of students’ perceived classroom learning environment (i.e. student cohesiveness, teacher support, involvement, investigation, task orientation, cooperation, and equity) and teacher effectiveness (i.e. teachers' beliefs, characteristics, and occupational well-being) to students’ self-regulation were tested by conducting separate HLM analyses considering the nested structure of the data. To select a nationally representative sample, two-stage random sampling approach was used. Data were collected from 372 science teachers and their 8198 seventh grade students in Turkey. Results indicated that perceived classroom learning environment variables were good predictors of students’ self-regulation in learning science. Among the learning environment variables, the task orientation appeared to be the most powerful predictor. Additionally, teacher variables were found to have direct relations with students’ self-regulation and moderate the relationships between learning environment and self-regulation variables.

Keywords

Classroom learning environment Multilevel analysis Science education Self-regulation Teacher effectiveness 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study is a part of the first author’s dissertation. Thanks to Turkish Ministry of Education, Education Research and Development Department for their supports to this study.

References

  1. Ames, C. (1992). Clasrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 261–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arisoy, N. (2007). Examining 8th grade students’ perception of learning environment of science classrooms in relation to motivational beliefs and attitudes (Unpublished master's thesis). Ankara: Middle East Technical University.Google Scholar
  3. Ashton, P. T., & Webb, R. B. (1986). Making a difference: Teachers’ sense of efficacy and student achievement. New York, NY: Longman.Google Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28(2), 117–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71–81). New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: H.Freeman.Google Scholar
  9. Boekaerts, M. (1997). Self-regulated learning: A new concept embraced by researchers, policy makers, educators, teachers, and students. Learning and Instruction, 7, 161–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bolyard, J. J., & Moyer-Packenham, P. S. (2008). A review of the literature on mathematics and science teacher quality. Peabody Journal of Education, 83(4), 509–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bong, M. (2001). Between- and within-domain relations of academic motivation among middle and high school students: Self-efficacy, task value, and achievement goals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 23–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Steca, P., & Malone, P. S. (2006). Teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of job satisfaction and students’ academic achievement: A study at the school level. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 473–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Church, M. A., Elliot, A. J., & Gable, S. L. (2001). Perceptions of classroom environment, achievement goals, and achievement outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(1), 43–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Demirtas, Z. (2010). Teachers’ job satisfaction levels. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 1069–1073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. den Brok, P., Fisher, D., Rickards, T., & Bull, E. (2006). Californian science students’ perceptions of their classroom learning environments. Educational Research and Evaluation: An International Journal on Theory and Practice, 12(1), 3–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. den Brok, P., Telli, S., Cakiroglu, J., Taconis, R., & Tekkaya, C. (2010). Learning environment profiles of Turkish secondary biology classrooms. Learning Environment Research, 13, 187–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dorman, J. P. (2001). Associations between classroom environment and academic efficacy. Learning Environment Research, 4, 243–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dorman, J. P., Adams, J. E., & Ferguson, J. M. (2003). A cross-national investigation of students’ perceptions of mathematics classroom environment and academic efficacy in secondary schools. International Journal for Mathematics Teaching and Learning, 15. Retrieved February 16, 2018, from http://www.cimt.org.uk/journal/dormanj.pdf
  19. Dweck, C. S. (1996). Implicit theories as organizers of goals and behavior. In P. M. Gollwitzer & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), The psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation to behavior (pp. 69–90). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  20. Dweck, C. S. (1999). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Philedelphia, PA: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  21. Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95(2), 256–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ee, J., Moore, P. J., & Atputhasamy, L. (2003). High-achieving students: Their motivational goals, self-regulation and achievement and relationship to their teachers' goals and strategy-based instruction. High Ability Studies, 14, 23–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2x2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(3), 201–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Farber, B. A. (1982). Stress and burnout: Implications for teacher motivation. New York, NY: Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA).Google Scholar
  25. Farber, B. A., & Miller, J. (1981). Teacher burnout: A psycho-educational perspective. Teachers College Record, 83(2), 235–243.Google Scholar
  26. Flavell, J. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring. American Psychologist, 34(10), 906–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fraser, B. J. (2002). Learning environments research: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. In S. C. Goh & M. S. Khine (Eds.), Studies in educational environments: An international perspective (pp. 1–25). Singapore: World Scientifiic.Google Scholar
  28. Fraser, B. J. (2012). Classroom learning environments: Retrospect, context and prospect. In J. F. Fraser, K. G. Tobin, & C. J. McRobbie (Eds.), Second international handbook of science education (pp. 1191–1240). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  29. Fraser, B. J., Fisher, D. L., & McRobbie, C. J. (1996). Development, validation and use of personal and class forms of a new classroom environment instrument. New York, NY: Paper presented at the annual meeting of American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
  30. Fraser, B. J., McRobbie, C. J., & Fisher, D. L. (1996). Development, validation and use of personal and class forms of a new classroom environment questionnaire. Proceedings Western Australian Institute for Educational Research Forum. Retrieved on February 16, 2018 from http://www.waier.org.au/forums/1996/fraser.html.
  31. Fraser, B. J., & Walberg, H. J. (1991). Educational environments: Evaluation antecedents and consequences. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  32. Gherasim, L. R., Butnanu, S., & Mairean, C. (2012). Classroom environment, achievement goals and maths performance: Gender differences. Educational Studies, 39(1), 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Guo, Y., McDonald Connor, C., Yang, Y., Roehring, A. D., & Morrison, F. (2012). The effects of teacher qualification, teacher self-efficacy, and classroom practices on fifth graders’ literacy outcomes. The Elementary School Journal, 113(1), 3–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Haertel, G. D., Walberg, H. J., & Haertel, E. D. (1981). Socio-psychological environments and learning: A quantitative synthesis. British Educational Research Journal, 7(1), 27–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hong, Y., Dweck, C. S., Chiu, C., Lin, D. M.-S., & Wan, W. (1999). Implicit theories, attributions, and coping: A meaning system approach. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 77(3), 588–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hoy, A. W., & Davis, H. A. (2005). Teachers’ sense of efficacy and its influence on the achievement of adolescents. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Adolescence and education: Vol. 5. Self-efficacy beliefs during adolescence (pp. 117–137). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.Google Scholar
  37. Kim, H., Fisher, D. L., & Fraser, B. J. (2000). Classroom environment and teacher interpersonal behaviour in secondary science classes in Korea. Evaluation & Research in Education, 14(1), 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Klassen, R. M., Tze, V. C., Betts, S. M., & Gordon, K. A. (2011). Teacher efficacy research 1998–2009: Signs of progress or unfulfilled promise? Educational Psychology Research, 23, 21–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Klusmann, U., Kunter, M., Trautwein, U., Lüdtke, O., & Baumert, J. (2008). Teachers’ occupational well-being and quality of instruction: The important role of self-regulatory patterns. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(3), 702–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kyriacou, C. (2001). Teacher stress: Directions for future research. Educational Review, 53, 27–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lau, S., Liem, A. D., & Nie, Y. (2008). Task- and self-related pathways to deep learning: The mediating role of achievement goals, classroom attentiveness, and group participation. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 639–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Levy, J., den Brok, P., Wubbels, T., & Brekelmans, M. (2003). Students’ perceptions of interpersonal aspects of the learning environment. Learning Environments Research, 6, 5–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lynott, D. J., & Woolfolk, A. E. (1994). Teachers’ implicit theories of intelligence and their educational goals. The Journal of Research and Development in Education, 27(4), 253–264.Google Scholar
  44. Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2, 99–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (1999). Teacher burnout: A research agenda. In R. Vandenburghe, & M. Huberman (Eds.), Understanding and preventing teacher stress: A sourcebook of international research and practice (pp. 295-314). Cambridge: Cambridge.Google Scholar
  46. Ministry of National Education of Turkey [MONE]. (2005). Science and technology curriculum of elementary schools (6th–8th grades). Ankara: Board of Education.Google Scholar
  47. Ministry of National Education of Turkey [MONE]. (2010). PISA 2009 project national report. Retrieved on February 16, 2018 from http://pisa.meb.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/PISA-2009-Ulusal-On-Rapor.pdf
  48. Ministry of National Education of Turkey [MONE]. (2011). TIMMS national report. Retrieved on February 16, 2018 from http://timss.meb.gov.tr/?page_id=25
  49. Ololube, N. P. (2006). Teachers job satisfaction and motivation for school effectiveness: An assessment. Essays in Education, 18. Retrieved on March 6, 2018 from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED496539.pdf
  50. Pamuk, S., Sungur, S., & Oztekin, C. (2017). A multilevel analysis of students’ science achievements in relation to their self-regulation, epistemological beliefs, learning environment perceptions, and teachers’ personal characteristics. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 15(8), 1423–1440.Google Scholar
  51. Pandey, S., & Elliot, W. (2010). Suppressor variables in social work research: Ways to identify in multiple regression models. Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research, 1(1), 28–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Paris, S. C., & Paris, A. H. (2001). Classroom applications of research on self-regulated learning. Educational Psychology, 36, 89–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Patrick, J., & Smart, R. M. (1998). An empirical evaluation of teacher effectiveness: The emergence of three critical factors. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 23(2), 165–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Peters, M. L. (2013). Examining the relationships among classroom climate, self-efficacy, and achievement in undergraduate mathematics: A multi-level analysis. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 11, 459–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekarts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 451–495). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. J. (1991). A manual for the use of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ). Ann Arbor, MI: National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  57. Rakici, N. (2004). Eight grade students’ perceptions of their science learning environment and teachers’ interpersonal behavior (Unpublished master's thesis). Ankara: Middle East Technical University.Google Scholar
  58. Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear model: Applications and data analysis method. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  59. Risemberg, R., & Zimmerman, B. J. (1992). Self-regulated learning in gifted students. Roeper Review, 15(2), 98–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Schraw, G., Crippen, K. J., & Hartley, K. (2006). Promoting self-regulation in science education: Metacognition as part of a broader perspective on learning. Research in Science Education, 36, 111–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schraw, G., & Moshman, D. (1995). Metacognitive theories. Educational Psychology Review, 7(4), 351–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Shim, S. S., Cho, Y., & Cassady, J. (2013). Goal structures: The role of teachers’ achievement goals and theories of intelligence. The Journal of Experimental Education, 81, 84–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2010). Teacher self-efficacy and teacher burnout: A study of relations. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 1059–1069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sungur, S., & Gungoren, S. (2009). The role of classroom environment perceptions in self-regulated learning and science achievement. Elementary Education Online, 8(3), 883–900.Google Scholar
  65. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  66. Tas, Y. (2008). The interplay of students’ perceptions of classroom goal structures, personal goal orientations and learning related variables (Unpublished master's thesis). Ankara: Middle East Technical University.Google Scholar
  67. Tas, Y., Sungur, S., & Oztekin, C. (2016). Development and validation of science homework scale for middle-school students. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 14(3), 417–444.Google Scholar
  68. Tekbıyık, A., & Akdeniz, A. R. (2008). Teachers’ views about adoption and application of primary science and technology curriculum. Necatibey Faculty of Education Electronic Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 2(2), 23–37.Google Scholar
  69. Topcu, M. S., & Yılmaz-Tuzun, O. (2009). Elementary students’ metacognition and epistemological beliefs considering science achievement, gender and socioeconomic status. Elementary Education Online, 8(3), 676–693.Google Scholar
  70. Tschannen-Moran, M., & Hoy, A. W. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(7), 783–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tschannen-Moran, M., & Hoy, A. W. (2007). The differential antecedents of self-efficacy beliefs of novice and experienced teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 944–956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tschannen-Moran, M., Hoy, A. W., & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher efficacy: Its meaning and measure. Review of Educational Research, 68(2), 202–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wan, C. P. (2005). Teaching efficacy beliefs of pre service teachers. Jurnal IPBA, 2(2), 122–129.Google Scholar
  74. Wolf, S. J., & Fraser, B. J. (2008). Learning environment, attitudes and achievement among middle-school science students using inquiry-based laboratory activities. Research in Science Education, 38, 321–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wolters, C. A., & Pintrich, P. R. (1998). Contextual differences in student motivation and self-regulated learning in mathematics, English, and social studies classroom. Instructional Science, 26, 27–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Xin, T., Xu, Z., & Tatsuoka, K. (2004). Linkage between teacher quality, student achievement, and cognitive skills: A rule-space model. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 30(3), 205–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Yildirim, S. (2012). Teacher support, motivation, learning, strategy use, and achievement: A multilevel mediation model. The Journal of Experimental Education, 80(2), 150–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Yilmaz-Tuzun, O., & Topcu, M. S. (2010). Investigating the relationships among elementary school students’ epistemological beliefs, metacognition, and constructivist science learning environment. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 21, 255–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 13–39). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mathematics and Science EducationKafkas UniversityKarsTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Mathematics and Science EducationMiddle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations