Do Teachers’ Instructional Practices Moderate Equity in Mathematical and Scientific Literacy?: an Investigation of the PISA 2012 and 2015
Many efforts have been made to reach educational equity, especially to reduce mathematics and science achievement gaps by students’ socioeconomic status. Across countries, educators strive to reform traditional teacher-centered instructional approaches to more student-centered/inquiry-based instruction to improve equity in education. In this context, this study examines whether relationships between socioeconomic status and scientific or mathematical literacy are moderated by student-centered instruction. Ten countries covering a wide range of achievement levels as well as equity in education are selected for an international comparison. A linear regression analysis is applied to student achievement, equity, and frequency of student-centered instruction data from the PISA 2012 and PISA 2015. We find mixed results: As student-centered instruction is offered more frequently, the gap in mathematical and scientific literacy between low and high socioeconomic status is generally narrowed or maintained. In most countries, students’ mathematical and scientific literacy scores are expected to decrease across all socioeconomic status as student-centered instruction is given more frequently. The findings necessitate further scrutiny of how teachers implement student-centered instruction in various educational systems. This further research need to consider the complexity of implementation related to sociological and pedagogical aspects.
KeywordsEquity in mathematics and science education Inquiry-based instruction International comparison study PISA Student-centered instruction
- Acar, O. (2015). Examination of science learning equity through argumentation and traditional instruction noting differences in socio-economic status. Science Education International, 26(1), 24–41.Google Scholar
- American Library Association (2014). Equality and equity of access: What’s the difference. Retrieved April, 25, 2014 from http://www.ala.org/advocacy/intfreedom/equalityequity.
- Banks, J. A. (1997). Educating citizens in a multicultural society. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
- Barba, R. H. (1995). Science in the multicultural classroom: A guide to teaching and learning. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
- Foy, P., Brossman, B., & Galia, J. (Eds.). (2012). Scaling the TIMSS and PIRLS 2011 achievement data. Chestnut Hill, MA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College and International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA).Google Scholar
- Fraser, B. (2015). Encyclopedia of science education. In R. Gunstone (Ed.), Classroom learning environments (pp. 154–157). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
- Hatano, G., & Inagaki, K. (1998). Cultural contexts of schooling revisited: A review of “the learning gap” from a cultural psychology perspective. In S. G. Paris & H. M. Wellman (Eds.), Global prospects for education: Development, culture, and schooling (pp. 79–104). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Heckman, J. J. (2011). The economics of inequality: The value of early childhood education. American Educator, 35(1), 31–35.Google Scholar
- Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75–86. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep4102_1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Laukaityte, I., & Wiberg, M. (2017). Using plausible values in secondary analysis in large-scale assessments. Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, 46(22), 11341–11357. https://doi.org/10.1080/03610926.2016.1267764.
- Lee, O., & Luykx, A. (2007). Science education and student diversity: Race/ethnicity, language, culture, and socioeconomic status. In S. Abell & N. Lederman (Eds.), Handbook of research on science education (Vol. 1, pp. 171–197). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Luft, J. A. (2001). Changing inquiry practices and beliefs: The impact of an inquiry-based professional development programme on beginning and experienced secondary science teachers. International Journal of Science Education, 23(5), 517–534. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690121307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lynch, S. J. (2000). Equity and science education reform. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Marshall, J. C. (2009). The creation, validation, and reliability associated with the EQUIP (Electronic Quality of Inquiry Protocol): A measure of inquiry-based instruction. Paper presented at the annual meeting of National Association of Researchers of Science Teaching (NARST), Garden Grove, CA.Google Scholar
- Magnusson, S., & Palincsar, A. (2005). Teaching to promote the development of scientific knowledge and reasoning about light at the elementary school level. In J. Bransford & S. Donovan (Eds.), How students learn: History, mathematics, and science in the classroom (pp. 421–474). Washington, DC: National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/10126.
- Martin, D. B. (2009). Researching race in mathematics education. Teachers College Record, 111(2), 295–338.Google Scholar
- Mehalik, M. M., Doppelt, Y., & Schuun, C. D. (2008). Middle-school science through design-based learning versus scripted inquiry: Better overall science concept learning and equity gap reduction. Journal of Engineering Education, 97(1), 71–85. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2168-9830.2008.tb00955.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- National Research Council [NRC]. (2000). Inquiry and the national science education standards: A guide for teaching and learning. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Oakes, J. (1990). Multiplying inequalities: The effects of race, social class, and tracking on opportunities to learn mathematics and science. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.Google Scholar
- OECD. (2013). PISA 2012 results: Excellence through equity giving every student the chance to succeed (Vol. 2). Paris, France: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
- OECD. (2014). PISA 2012 technical report. Paris, France: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
- OECD. (2016b). PISA 2015 results in focus. Paris, France: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
- OECD. (2016c). PISA 2015 results (volume I): Excellence and equity in education. Paris, France: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
- OECD. (2016d). PISA 2015 results (volume II): Policies and practices for successful schools. Paris, France: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
- OECD. (2017). PISA 2015 technical report. Paris, France: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
- OECD. (2008). Ten steps to equity in education. Paris, France: OECD Policy Brief. Retrieved November 3, 2015, from http://www.oecd.org/education/school/39989494.pdf.