TEACHING ‘OUT-OF-FIELD’ AS A BOUNDARY-CROSSING EVENT: FACTORS SHAPING TEACHER IDENTITY
- 1.3k Downloads
Teaching ‘out-of-field’ occurs when teachers teach a subject for which they are not qualified. The issues around this increasingly common practice are not widely researched and are under-theorised. A qualitative pilot study using teacher interviews in 3 rural schools examined meanings, support mechanisms and teacher identities associated with out-of-field teaching. A thematic analysis isolated factors influencing whether teachers self-assessed their practice and identities as out-of-field. The ‘boundary between fields’ model was developed to emphasise support mechanisms, contextual factors and personal resources that influenced the nature of teachers’ negotiation of subject boundaries and its impact on professional identity. These findings provide insight for policy makers, school leaders and teacher educators into the conditions required for such teaching to be considered learning opportunities.
KEY WORDSprofessional identity professional learning rurality science and mathematics teacher teacher allotment teaching out-of-field
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Ainley, J., Kos, J. & Nicholas, M. (2008). Participation in science, mathematics and technology in Australian education. ACER Research Monograph No. 63. Camberwell, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
- Akkerman, S. F. & Bakker, A. (2011). Boundary crossing and boundary objects. Review of Educational Research, 8(2), 132–169.Google Scholar
- Darby, L. (2008). Negotiating mathematics and science school subject boundaries: The role of aesthetic understanding. In N. V. Thomase (Ed.), Science in focus (pp. 225–251). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
- Darby, L. (2009). Translating a “relevance imperative” into junior secondary mathematics and science. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology and Education, 5, 277–288.Google Scholar
- Darby, L. (2010) Teacher Identity In and Across Subjects (TIIAS) Project: Summary of analysis. Final Report. Prepared for the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, Victoria.Google Scholar
- Australian Education Union (2009). State of Our Schools Survey 2009. Retrieved 5 January 2010 from www.aeufederal.org.au/Publications/2009/SOSreport.pdf.
- Connelly, F. M. & Clandinin, D. J. (1999). Shaping a professional identity: Stories of experience. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
- Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher quality and student achievement: A review of state policy evidence. Educational Policy Analysis Archives, 8(1), 1–50.Google Scholar
- Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (2009). Teacher Supply and Demand Report. Carlton: State of Victoria.Google Scholar
- Department of Education Employment and Workplace Relations (2008). Staff in Australian School 2007. Retrieved 6 January 2010 from http://www.dest.gov.au.
- Department of Education Science and Training (2003). Australia's teachers: Australia's future. Advancing innovation, science, technology and mathematics. Agenda for action. Canberra, Australia: Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
- Education & Training Committee (2006). Inquiry into the promotion of mathematics and science education. Melbourne, Australia: Parliament of Victoria.Google Scholar
- Fonatana, A. & Frey, J. H. (2005). The interview. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed., pp. 695–727). London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Gee, J. P. (2010). An introduction to discourse analysis: Theory and method. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self-identity: Self and society in the late modern age. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Harris, K.-L. & Jensz, F. (2006). The preparation of mathematics teachers in Australia. Meeting the demand for suitably qualified mathematics teachers in secondary schools. Melbourne, Australia: Centre of the Study of Higher Education, The University of Melbourne.Google Scholar
- Harris, K.-L., Jensz, F. & Baldwin, G. (2005). Who's teaching science? Meeting the demand for qualified science teachers in Australian secondary schools. Melbourne, Australia: Centre for the Study of Higher Education, The University of Melbourne.Google Scholar
- Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Helms, J. (1998). Science-and me: Subject matter and identity in secondary school science teachers. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35(7), 811–834.Google Scholar
- Hitchcock, G. & Hughes, D. (1989). Research and the teacher. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Holyoak, K. J. (1991). Symbolic connectionism: Toward third-generation theories of expertise. In K. A. Ericsson & J. Smith (Eds.), Toward a general theory of expertise: Prospects and limits (pp. 301–335). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Ingersoll, R. M. (1998). The problem of out-of-field teaching. Phi Delta Kappan, 79(10), 773–776.Google Scholar
- Ingersoll, R. M. (2002). Out-of-field teaching, educational inequity, and the organization of schools: An exploratory analysis. Washington, DC: Centre of the Study of Teaching and Policy.Google Scholar
- Ingvarson, L., Beavis, A., Bishop, A. J., Peck, R. & Elsworth, G. (2004). Investigation of effective mathematics teaching and learning in Australian secondary schools. Melbourne, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
- Johnson, B., Down, B., Le Cornu, R., Peters, J., Sullivan, A. M., Pearce, J. & et al. (2010). Conditions that support early career teacher resilience. Paper presented at the Australian Teacher Education Association Conference Townsville, Queensland.Google Scholar
- Lyons, T., Cooksey, R., Panizzon, D., Parnell, A. & Pegg, J. (2006). Science, ICT and mathematics education in rural and regional Australia. The SiMERR National Survey. Canberra, Australia: Department of Education, Science and Training.Google Scholar
- Masters, G. (2007). Restoring our edge in education. Paper prepared for the Business Council of Australia, ACER, Melbourne.Google Scholar
- McKenzie, P., Santiago, P., Sliwka, P. & Hiroyuki, H. (2005). Teachers matter: Attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
- McConney, A. & Price, A. (2009a). An assessment of the phenomenon of “teaching out-of-field” in WA schools. Perth, Australia: Western Australian College of Teaching.Google Scholar
- McConney, A. & Price, A. (2009b). Teaching out-of-field in Western Australia. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 34(6), 86–100.Google Scholar
- Neumann, W. L. (2003). Social research methods. Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Boston, MA: Allyn Bacon.Google Scholar
- Opdenakker, R. (2006). Advantages and disadvantages of four interview techniques in qualitative research. Forum Qualitative Social Research, 7(4).Google Scholar
- Panizzon, D., Westall, M. & Elliott, K. (2010). Exploring the profile of teachers of secondary science: What are the emerging issues for future workforce planning? Teaching Science, 56(4), 18–40.Google Scholar
- Pillay, H., Goddard, R. & Wilss, L. (2005). Well-being, burnout and competence: Implications for teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 30(2), 22–33.Google Scholar
- Ponte, J. & Chapman, O. (2008). Preservice mathematics teachers’ knowledge and development. In L. D. English (Ed.), Handbook of International Research in Mathematics Education (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 223–261). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4–14.Google Scholar
- Simmons, P. E., Emory, A., Carter, T., Coker, T., Finnegan, B., Crockett, D., Richardson, L., Yager, R., Craven, J., Tillotson, J., et al. (1999). Beginning teachers: beliefs and classroom actions. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36(8), 930–954.Google Scholar
- Siskin, L. S. (1994). Realms of knowledge: Academic departments in secondary schools. London: The Falmer Press.Google Scholar
- Star, S. L. (1989). The structure of ill-structured solutions: Boundary objects and heterogeneous distributed problem-solving. In L. Gasser & M. N. Huhns (Eds.), Distributed artificial intelligence (Vol. II, pp. 37–54). London: Pitman.Google Scholar
- Tasmanian Audit Office (2010). Auditor-General Special Report No. 90. Science Education in public high schools. Crown in Right of the State of Tasmania, Hobart.Google Scholar
- Taylor, T. (2000). The future of the past: Final report of the National Inquiry into School History. Retrieved 6 January 2010 from http://www.dest.gov.au.
- Thomas, J. (2000, October). Mathematical science in Australia: Looking for a future. FASTS Occasional Paper Series. Retrieved January 2007 from http://www.FASTS.org.
- van Manen, M. (1990). Researching lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy. London: Althouse.Google Scholar
- Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar