# GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TAIWANESE ADOLESCENTS' MATHEMATICS ATTITUDES AND THEIR PERCEPTIONS TOWARD VIRTUAL MANIPULATIVES

- 325 Downloads
- 11 Citations

## ABSTRACT

This study explored gender differences in the relationship between young people's mathematics attitudes and their perceptions toward virtual manipulatives. Seven hundred eighty junior high school adolescents who participated in the problem-solving activity using virtual manipulatives were selected for examination. The study found the male adolescents' views on motivation and enjoyment of mathematics could explain many aspects of their perceptions toward virtual manipulatives. The female adolescents' views on the importance of mathematics and freedom from fear of mathematics could explain many aspects of their perceptions toward virtual manipulatives. However, motivation, enjoyment, and importance of mathematics were more prominent than freedom from fear of mathematics in predicting male adolescents' perceptions toward virtual manipulatives, and freedom from fear and importance of mathematics were more prominent than enjoyment and motivation of mathematics in predicting female adolescents' perceptions toward virtual manipulatives. Two implications can be drawn from this study. First, teachers could provide males with appealing problem contexts not only to be used to remove the fear of mathematics, but also to be used for enjoyment and as motivation to see the importance of mathematics. Then male students could be encouraged to have more confirmed positive perceptions toward virtual manipulatives when engaging in the activities of computer-based mathematics. Second, teachers could provide females with interesting teaching activities, not only to be used for motivation and the enjoyment of mathematics, but also to be used to remove the fear of mathematics and for experiencing the importance of mathematics. Then female students could have positive perceptions toward virtual manipulatives when technology was integrated into the classroom to enhance learning and to support effective mathematics teaching.

## KEY WORDS

gender differences mathematics attitudes virtual manipulatives## Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

## REFERENCES

- Aiken, L. R. Jr. (1976). Update on attitudes and other affective variables in learning mathematics.
*Review of Educational Research, 46*, 293–311.Google Scholar - Ainley, M., Corrigan, M., & Richardson, N. (2005). Students, tasks and emotions: Identifying the contribution of emotions to students reading of popular culture and popular science texts.
*Learning and Instruction, 15*, 433–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Ashby, F. G., Isen, A. M., & Turken, A. U. (1999). A neuropsychological theory of positive affect and its influence on cognition.
*Psychological Review, 106*, 529–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Black, J. B., & McClintock, R. O. (1996). An interpretation construction approach to constructivist design. In B. Wilson (Ed.),
*Constructivist learning environments*(pp. 23–31). Englewood Cliffs: Educational Technology Publications.Google Scholar - Colley, A. (2003). Gender differences in adolescents' perceptions of the best and worst aspects of computing at school.
*Computers in Human Behavior, 19*, 673–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Crawford, C., & Brown, E. (2003). Integrating internet-based mathematical manipulatives within a learning environment.
*Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 22*(2), 169–180.Google Scholar - Dinkheller, A. (1994).
*Graphing calculators in precalculus: Gender, anxiety, and achievement*. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, Ohio.Google Scholar - Dunham, P. (1991).
*Mathematical confidence and performance in technology enhanced precalculus: Gender related differences*. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Ohio.Google Scholar - Forgasz, H. (1995). Girls' attitudes in mixed and single-sex mathematics classrooms. In B. Grevholm, & G. Hanna (Eds.),
*Gender and mathematics education: An ICMI study in Stiftsgarden, Akdersberg, Hoor, Sweden, 1993*(pp. 167–178). Lund: Lund University Press.Google Scholar - Frenzel, A. C., Pekrun, R., & Goetz, T. (2007). Girls and mathematics—A “hopeless” issue? A control-value approach to gender differences in emotions towards mathematics.
*European Journal of Psychology of Education, 22*(4), 497–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Fullarton, S. (1993).
*Confidence in mathematics: The effects of gender*(*research monograph 2*). Geelong: Deakin University National Center for Research and Development in Mathematics Education.Google Scholar - Galbraith, P., Haines, C., & Pemberton, M. (1999). A tale of two cities: When mathematics, computers, and students meet. In J. M. Truran & K. M. Truran (Eds.), Making the difference (Proceedings of the 21st annual conference of the mathematics education research group of Australasia, Adelaide, pp. 215-222). Sydney: MERGA.Google Scholar
- Harackiewitz, J. M., Barron, K. E., Tauer, J. M., Carter, S. M., & Elliot, A. J. (2000). Short-term and long-term consequences of achievement goals: Predicting interest and performance over time.
*Journal of Educational Psychology, 92*, 316–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Isen, A. M. (1999). Positive affect. In T. Dalgleish, & M. Power (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 521–539). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Krapp, A. (2005). Basic needs and the development of interest and intrinsic motivational orientations.
*Learning and Instruction, 15*, 381–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Leder, G. C. (1993). Teacher/student interactions in the mathematics classroom: A different perspective. In E. Fennema, & G. Leder (Eds.),
*Mathematics and gender*(pp. 149–168). Brisbane: Queensland University Press.Google Scholar - Lee, C. Y., & Chen, M. P. (2008a). Bridging the gap between mathematical conjecture and proof through computer-supported cognitive conflicts.
*Teaching Mathematics and its Applications, 27*(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Lee, C. Y., & Chen, M. P. (2008b). Taiwanese junior high school students' mathematics attitudes and perceptions toward virtual manipulatives.
*British Journal of Educational Technology*. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2008.00877.x. - Liaw, S. S., & Huang, H. M. (2003). An investigation of user attitudes toward search engines as an information retrieval tool.
*Computers in Human Behavior, 19*, 751–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Lu, S. M., & Mao, K. N. (2008). Gender differences and differential item functioning in mathematics basic competence test for junior high school students.
*Journal of Educational Practice and Research, 21*(2), 95–126.Google Scholar - Meinhardt, J., & Pekrun, R. (2003). Attentional resource allocation to emotional events: An ERP study.
*Cognition and Emotion, 17*, 477–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Moyer, P. S., Bolyard, J. J., & Spikell, M. A. (2002). What are virtual manipulatives?
*Teaching Children Mathematics, 8*, 372–377.Google Scholar - National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2000).
*Principles and standards for school mathematics*. Reston: NCTM.Google Scholar - Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W., & Perry, R. P. (2002). Academic emotions in students' self-regulated learning and achievement: A program of quantitative and qualitative research.
*Educational Psychologist, 37*, 91–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Reimer, K., & Moyer, P. S. (2005). Third-graders learn about fractions using virtual manipulatives: A classroom study.
*Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 24*(1), 5–25.Google Scholar - Steen, K., Brooks, D., & Lyon, T. (2006). The impact of virtual manipulatives on first grade geometry instruction and learning.
*Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 25*(4), 373–391.Google Scholar - Stellingwerf, B. P., & Van Lieshout, R. C. D. M. (1999). Manipulatives and number sentences in computer aided arithmetic word problem solving.
*Instructional Science, 27*, 459–476.Google Scholar - Sutherland, R., & Hoyles, C. (1988). Gender perspectives on logo programming in the mathematics classroom. In C. Hoyles (Ed.),
*Girls and computers: General issues and case studies of logo in the mathematics classroom*(pp. 40–63). London: University of London.Google Scholar - Suh, J., & Heo, H. J. (2005). Examining technology users in the classroom: Developing fraction sense using virtual manipulatives concept tutorials.
*Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 3*(4), 1–21.Google Scholar - Tsai, C. C., & Lin S. S. J. (2001). Analysis of attitudes toward computer networks and internet addiction of Taiwanese adolescents.
*Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 4*(3), 373–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Tsai, C. C., & Lin, C. C. (2004). Taiwanese adolescents' perceptions and attitudes regarding the internet: Exploring gender differences.
*Adolescents, 39*, 725–734.Google Scholar - Vale, C. M., & Leder, G. C. (2004). Student views of computer-based mathematics in the middle years: Does gender make a difference?
*Educational Studies in Mathematics, 56*, 287–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - Yuan, Y. (2007). A comparison study of polyominoes explorations in a physical and a virtual manipulative environment. In L. C. Sam, F. Saleh, M. Ghazali, H. Sulaiman, H. M. Yunus, G. W. Ling, & H. T. Yong (Eds.),
*Proceedings of Fourth East Asia Regional Conference on mathematics education*(pp. 186–190). Penang: Syarikat Jasmin Lebuh Ah Quee.Google Scholar - Yuan, Y., Lee, C. Y., & Huang, J. R. (2007). Developing geometry software for exploration: Geometry player.
*Journal of the Korea Society of Mathematics Education Series D, 11*(3), 209–218.Google Scholar