# Focus on the Representation of Problem Types in Intended Curriculum: A Comparison of Selected Mathematics Textbooks from Mainland China and the United States

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## Abstract

This study compared how selected mathematics textbooks from Mainland China and the United States at the lower secondary grade level represent various types of problems for classroom teaching and learning. The examination of problems was carried out based on the classifications of problem types established in the study, including routine problems versus non-routine problems, open-ended problems versus close-ended problems, traditional problems versus non-traditional problems, and application problems versus non-application problems, among others. Both the similarities and differences in the representation of problems in the selected textbooks were analyzed. The results were used to explore the possible influences of those textbooks on students’ different performances in mathematics, as revealed in cross-national comparisons. Discussions about how to improve the representation of problems in mathematics textbooks were provided at the end of the study.

## Key words

comparative study mathematical problem solving mathematics textbooks problem types textbook analysis## Preview

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