Advertisement

Open-Source and Low-Cost Test Bed for Automated 5G Channel Measurement in mmWave Band

  • Chiu Chun ChanEmail author
  • Ferdi Ganda Kurnia
  • Akram Al-Hournani
  • Karina Mabell Gomez
  • Sithamparanathan Kandeepan
  • Wayne Rowe
Article
  • 14 Downloads

Abstract

The fifth-generation cellular networks (5G) has been proposed as a solution for the accelerating growth in data traffic. As part of 5G, millimeter-wave (mmWave) is suggested as one of the potential spectrum candidates due to the vastly available bandwidth. Accordingly, both indoor and outdoor propagation measurements on mmWave have been widely conducted over the recent years. These field measurements were heavily dependent on utilizing expensive channel-sounders and tools. In this paper, we propose an affordable and open-source test-bed solution for mmWave channel modeling covering 24 and 77 GHz bands. The key contribution in the proposed test-bed is the use of cost-effective mmWave Doppler radars, a specific methodology is developed for this purpose. The proposed test-bed is capable of resolving the received power at any given combination of angles-of-arrival (AoA) and angles-of-departure (AoD). In order to verify the functionality of the proposed test bed, several measurement scenarios have been investigated in different indoor environments, the obtained propagation results using this test bed indicate a good consistency with the expected mmWave propagation characteristics. As the proposed test bed is an open source and cost-effective, researchers and RF designers can easily conduct mmWave propagation measurements according to their particular needs.

Keywords

mmWave Wireless channel modeling 5G Doppler radar 24 GHz 77 GHz 

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    J. G. Andrews, S. Buzzi, W. Choi, S. V. Hanly, A. Lozano, A. C. K. Soong, and J. C. Zhang, “What will 5G be?” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1065–1082, June 2014.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ericsson, “Ericsson Mobility Report, Mobile World Congress Edition,” Feb 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.ericsson.com/en/mobility-report/reports/june-2018.
  3. 3.
    S. Mattisson, “Overview of 5G requirements and future wireless networks,” in ESSCIRC 2017 - 43rd IEEE European Solid State Circuits Conference, Sept 2017, pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Chandrasekharan, A. Al-Hourani, K. Magowe, L. Reynaud, and S. Kandeepan, “Propagation measurements for D2D in rural areas,” in 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communication Workshop (ICCW), June 2015, pp. 639–645.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. G. Larew, T. A. Thomas, M. Cudak, and A. Ghosh, “Air interface design and ray tracing study for 5G millimeter wave communications,” in 2013 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), Dec 2013, pp. 117–122.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Hur, S. Baek, B. Kim, Y. Chang, A. F. Molisch, T. S. Rappaport, K. Haneda, and J. Park, “Proposal on Millimeter-Wave Channel Modeling for 5G Cellular System,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 454–469, April 2016.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. F. Molisch, Channel Sounding. Wiley-IEEE Press, 2011, pp. 888–.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    ITU-R, “Effects of building materials and structures on radiowave propagation above about 100 MHz, ITU-R P.2040-1,” Effects of building materials and structures on radiowave propagation above about 100 MHz, ITU-R P.2040-1, July 2015.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Hur, Y. J. Cho, J. Lee, N.-G. Kang, J. Park, and H. Benn, “Synchronous channel sounder using horn antenna and indoor measurements on 28 GHz,” in 2014 IEEE International Black Sea Conference on Communications and Networking (BlackSeaCom), May 2014, pp. 83–87.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. Matz, A. F. Molisch, F. Hlawatsch, M. Steinbauer, and I. Gaspard, “On the systematic measurement errors of correlative mobile radio channel sounders,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 808–821, May 2002.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Z. Tang, H. Suzuki, and I. B. Collings, “Performance of antenna selection for MIMO-OFDM systems based on measured indoor correlated frequency selective channels,” in Proc. ATNAC, 2006, pp. 435–439.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    T. S. Rappaport, S. Sun, R. Mayzus, H. Zhao, Y. Azar, K. Wang, G. N. Wong, J. K. Schulz, M. Samimi, and F. Gutierrez, “Millimeter wave mobile communications for 5G cellular: It will work!” IEEE access, vol. 1, pp. 335–349, 2013.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    G. R. MacCartney, S. Deng, and T. S. Rappaport, “Indoor Office Plan Environment and Layout-Based mmWave Path Loss Models for 28 GHz and 73 GHz,” in 2016 IEEE 83rd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), May 2016, pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. Paschalidis, J. Nuckelt, K. Mahler, M. Peter, A. Kortke, M. Wisotzki, W. Keusgen, and T. Kürner, “Investigation of MPC Correlation and Angular Characteristics in the Vehicular Urban Intersection Channel Using Channel Sounding and Ray Tracing,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 65, no. 8, pp. 5874–5886, Aug 2016.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Lei, J. Zhang, T. Lei, and D. Du, “28-GHz indoor channel measurements and analysis of propagation characteristics,” in 2014 IEEE 25th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communication (PIMRC), Sept 2014, pp. 208–212.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. Zhao, R. Mayzus, S. Sun, M. Samimi, J. K. Schulz, Y. Azar, K. Wang, G. N. Wong, F. Gutierrez, and T. S. Rappaport, “28 GHz millimeter wave cellular communication measurements for reflection and penetration loss in and around buildings in New York city,” in 2013 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), June 2013, pp. 5163–5167.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. H. Kim, M. W. Jung, Y. K. Yoon, Y. J. Chong, and M. S. Song, “60 and 28GHz delay spread measurements and simulation at indoor,” in 2014 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC), Oct 2014, pp. 148–150.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Y. Azar, G. N. Wong, K. Wang, R. Mayzus, J. K. Schulz, H. Zhao, F. Gutierrez, D. Hwang, and T. S. Rappaport, “28 GHz propagation measurements for outdoor cellular communications using steerable beam antennas in New York city,” in 2013 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), June 2013, pp. 5143–5147.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    ITU-R, “A general purpose wide-range terrestrial propagation model in the frequency range 30 MHz to 50 GHz, ITU-R P.2001,” A general purpose wide-range terrestrial propagation model in the frequency range 30 MHz to 50 GHz, ITU-R P.2001, July 2015.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Meinilä, P. Kyösti, T. Jämsä, and L. Hentilä, “WINNER II channel models,” Radio Technologies and Concepts for IMT-Advanced, pp. 39–92, 2009.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. Piersanti, L. A. Annoni, and D. Cassioli, “Millimeter waves channel measurements and path loss models,” in Communications (ICC), 2012 IEEE International Conference on. IEEE, 2012, pp. 4552–4556.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Peter, R. J. Weiler, W. Keusgen, T. Eichler, M. Kottkamp, and A. Nähring, “Characterization of mm-wave channel sounders up to w-band and validation of measurement results,” in 2016 10th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), April 2016, pp. 1–5.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Z. Wen, H. Kong, Q. Wang, S. Li, X. Zhao, M. Wang, and S. Sun, “mmWave channel sounder based on COTS instruments for 5G and indoor channel measurement,” in 2016 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, April 2016, pp. 1–7.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    D. Cvetkovski, E. Grass, T. Hälsig, and B. Lankl, “Hardware-in-the-loop demonstration of a 60GHz line-of-sight 2:2 MIMO link,” in IEEE EUROCON 2017 -17th International Conference on Smart Technologies, July 2017, pp. 631–636.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    L. Arduino. (2015) Arduino Due AT91SAM3X8E. [Online]. Available: https://store.arduino.cc/usa/arduino-due.
  26. 26.
    N. Semiconductor. (2007) nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4GHz Transceiver Product Specification. [Online]. Available: http://www.nordicsemi.com/eng/nordic/download_resource/8041/1/77087380/2730.
  27. 27.
    C. Chan, F. Kurnia, A. Al-Hournani. (2018) Source code for the mmWave measurement system. [Online]. Available: https://github.com/s3556682/mmWave-measurement-system.
  28. 28.
    S. IMA. (2011) RS3400W/04 77 GHz Radar Sensor Data Sheet. [Online]. Available: https://www.siversima.com/wp-content/uploads/RS3400W04_DataSheet.pdf.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EngineeringRMIT UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations