Pixel Statistical Analysis of Diabetic vs. Non-diabetic Foot-Sole Spectral Terahertz Reflection Images

  • G. G. Hernandez-Cardoso
  • M. Alfaro-Gomez
  • S. C. Rojas-Landeros
  • I. Salas-Gutierrez
  • E. Castro-CamusEmail author


In this article, we present a series of hydration mapping images of the foot soles of diabetic and non-diabetic subjects measured by terahertz reflectance. In addition to the hydration images, we present a series of RYG-color-coded (red yellow green) images where pixels are assigned one of the three colors in order to easily identify areas in risk of ulceration. We also present the statistics of the number of pixels with each color as a potential quantitative indicator for diabetic foot-syndrome deterioration.


Terahertz imaging Diabetic foot Tissue hydration Biomedical applications 



The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of CONACyT through grants 280392, 255114 and 252939 and scholarships 291236 and 290915. We also want to thank H. L. Lopez-Lemus who helped with the logistics of the measurements at ISSSTE-Leon, and the ethics committee paperwork.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

The protocol for measurements on human subjects was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Hospital Regional Leon of the Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado on the 18/SEP/2014. All patients signed an informed consent form.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.C.LeonMexico
  2. 2.Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia de TerahertzLeonMexico
  3. 3.Departamento de Matematicas y Fisica, Centro de Ciencias Basicas.Universidad Autonoma de AguascalientesAguascalientesMexico
  4. 4.Hospital Angeles LeonLeonMexico

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