Is there a Biological Basis for Therapeutic Applications of Millimetre Waves and THz Waves?
- 346 Downloads
Millimetre wave (MMW) and THz wave (THz) applications are already employed in certain industrial and medical environments for non-destructive quality control, and medical imaging, diagnosis, and therapy, respectively. The aim of the present study is to investigate if published experimental studies (in vivo and in vitro) provide evidence for “non-thermal” biological effects of MMW and THz. Such effects would occur in absence of tissue heating and associated damage and are the ones that can be exploited for therapeutic medical use. The investigated studies provide some evidence for both MMW and THz that can influence biological systems in a manner that is not obviously driven by tissue heating. However, the number of relevant studies is very limited which severely limits the drawing of any far-reaching conclusions. Furthermore, the studies have not addressed specific interaction mechanisms and do not provide hints for future mechanistic studies. Also, the studies do not indicate any specific importance regarding power density levels, frequencies, or exposure duration. It is also unclear if any specific biological endpoints are especially sensitive. Any therapeutic potential of MMW or THz has to be evaluated based on future high-quality studies dealing with physical, bio-physical, and biological aspects that have specific health-related perspectives in mind.
KeywordsMillimetre wave THz wave Non-thermal In vivo In vitro
MS and MOM received a financial support from Forschungsstiftung Strom und Mobilkommunikation, CH (FSM; Project B2014-04). MOM received intramural funding from AIT for parts of this study.
- 2.K. Humphreys et al., ‘Medical applications of terahertz imaging: a review of current technology and potential applications in biomedical engineering.’, Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc., vol. 2, pp. 1302–1305, 2004.Google Scholar
- 3.C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, ‘The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date’, Quatitative Imaging Med. Surg., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 33–45, Mar. 2012.Google Scholar
- 13.M. K. Logani, M. K. Bhopale, and M. C. Ziskin, ‘Millimeter Wave and Drug Induced Modulation of the Immune System—Application in Cancer Immunotherapy’, J. Cell Sci. Ther., vol. s5, no. S5, 2012.Google Scholar
- 16.T. Partyla, H. Hacker, H. Edinger, B. Leutzow, J. Lange, and T. Usichenko, ‘Remote Effects of Electromagnetic Millimeter Waves on Experimentally Induced Cold Pain: A Double-Blinded Crossover Investigation in Healthy Volunteers’, Anesth. Analg., vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 980–985, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.H. Chen et al., ‘High-sensitivity in vivo THz transmission imaging of early human breast cancer in a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model’, Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 22, p. 21552, 2011.Google Scholar
- 24.M. Wang, G. Yang, W. Li, and Q. Wu, ‘An overview of cancer treatment by terahertz radiation’, in 2013 I.E. MTT-S International Microwave Workshop Series on RF and Wireless Technologies for Biomedical and Healthcare Applications, IMWS-BIO 2013-Proceedings, 2013.Google Scholar
- 29.J. Schilderet, D. Spät, T. Samaras, W. Oesch, and N. Kuster, ‘In vitro exposure systems for RF exposures at 900 MHz’, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 52, no. 8 II, pp. 2067–2075, 2004.Google Scholar
- 31.O. Zeni and M. R. Scarfì, ‘Experimental requirements for in vitro studies aimed to evaluate the biological effects of radiofrequency radiation’, Microw. Mater. Charact., pp. 121–138, Nov. 2012.Google Scholar
- 32.International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), ‘ICNIRP Guidelines for Limiting Exposure To Time-Varying Electric, Magnetic and Electromagnetic fields’, Health Phys., vol. 74, pp. 494–522, 1998.Google Scholar
- 33.J. F. Federici et al., ‘THz imaging and sensing for security applications - Explosives, weapons and drugs’, Semiconductor Science and Technology, vol. 20, no. 7. 2005.Google Scholar
- 34.J. Federici and L. Moeller, ‘Review of terahertz and subterahertz wireless communications’, Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 107, no. 11. 2010.Google Scholar
- 35.E. Berry, ‘Risk perception and safety issues’, in Journal of Biological Physics, 2003, vol. 29, no. 2–3, pp. 263–267.Google Scholar
- 37.International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), ‘Guidelines on UV radiation exposure limits.’, Health Phys., vol. 71, no. 6, p. 978, Dec. 1996.Google Scholar
- 38.M. Mattsson and M. Simkó, ‘Grouping of Experimental Conditions as an Approach to Evaluate Effects of Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields on Oxidative Response in in vitro Studies.’, Front. public Heal., vol. 2, no. September, p. 132, 2014.Google Scholar