Combined Hyperthermia and Photodynamic Therapy Using a Sub-THz Gyrotron as a Radiation Source
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In this paper, we present results of a hyperthermia treatment of malignant tumors using a gyrotron as a radiation source for heating of the cancerous tissue. They clearly demonstrate the efficiency of the irradiation by sub-THz waves, which leads to steady decrease of the volume of the tumor and finally to its disappearance. A combination of hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy (PDT) that utilizes a novel multifunctional photosensitizer has also been explored. In the latter case, the results are even more convincing and promising. In particular, while after a hyperthermia treatment sometimes a regrowth of the tumor is being observed, in the case of combined hyperthermia and PDT such regrowth has never been noticed. Another combined therapy is based on a preheating of the tumor by gyrotron radiation to temperatures lower than the hyperthermia temperature of 43 °C and followed then by PDT. The results show that such combination significantly increases the efficiency of the treatment. We consider this phenomenon as a synergy effect since it is absent when hyperthermia and PDT are applied separately, and manifests itself only when both methods are combined.
KeywordsSub-terahertz wave Gyrotron Hyperthermia Photodynamic therapy Cancer treatment
One of us (N.M.) would like to thank the following persons and institutions for their support and collaboration:
i. Foundations JST and JSPS, Yuzuru Husimi (JST), Top Analysis Technology and Development of the Instrument Project (2009-2012), JSPS-Challenge & Exploratory Research (2014: 26640090), B-2 (2008-2010: 11557116), JST-Innovation (2006-2007), JSPS-Specific Research (2005-2006: 17029024), Cosmo Oil Ltd. Co. (2005-2008), JSPS-B-2 (2004-2007: 14370793), and JSPS-C-2 (1999-2000: 11672293).
ii. Clinical supports from Dr. Sadao Kaneko (Kashiwaba Neurosurgical Hospital) and Prof. Katayama.
iii. Postdoctoral researchers: Dr. Shinji Ito (Kyushu University) and Dr. Andriana Bintung Bibin (Kwansei Gakuin University, Indonesia).
iv. Collaborators from Japan and overseas: Ken-ichi Akao (Jasco Ltd. Co.), Hideki Takeda (Dai-ichi Kagaku Ltd. Co.), Dean Prof. Akira Yamaguchi, Prof. Yoshiaki Imamura, Prof. Kanji Katayama, Prof. Takanori Goi (University of Fukui), Prof. H. Hisazumi, Prof. Sukalyan Kumar Kundu (Bangladesh), Prof. Vivekananda Mandal (India), Yoichiro Ito (NIH), Dr. Kotake (USA), and Dr. P. Rietz (NIH)
Finally, this work was also supported partially by the Special Fund for Education and Research from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) in Japan.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All applicable international, national, and institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.
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