On the Correlation of Effective Terahertz Refractive Index and Average Surface Roughness of Pharmaceutical Tablets

  • Mousumi Chakraborty
  • Prince Bawuah
  • Nicholas Tan
  • Tuomas Ervasti
  • Pertti Pääkkönen
  • J. Axel Zeitler
  • Jarkko Ketolainen
  • Kai-Erik Peiponen
Article

Abstract

In this paper, we have studied terahertz (THz) pulse time delay of porous pharmaceutical microcrystalline compacts and also pharmaceutical tablets that contain indomethacin (painkiller) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and microcrystalline cellulose as the matrix of the tablet. The porosity of a pharmaceutical tablet is important because it affects the release of drug substance. In addition, surface roughness of the tablet has much importance regarding dissolution of the tablet and hence the rate of drug release. Here, we show, using a training set of tablets containing API and with a priori known tablet’s quality parameters, that the effective refractive index (obtained from THz time delay data) of such porous tablets correlates with the average surface roughness of a tablet. Hence, THz pulse time delay measurement in the transmission mode provides information on both porosity and the average surface roughness of a compact. This is demonstrated for two different sets of pharmaceutical tablets having different porosity and average surface roughness values.

Keywords

Terahertz pulse Refractive index Average surface roughness Porosity Pharmaceutical compact 

References

  1. 1.
    K.-E. Peiponen, R. Myllylä, A.V. Priezzhev, Optical Measurement Techniques: Innovations for Industry and Life Sciences (Springer, Berlin, 2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    PAT—A Framework for Innovative Pharmaceutical Development, Manufacturing, and Quality Assurance. (FDA 2004), http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/Guidances/ucm070305.pdf. Accessed 14 November 2015.
  3. 3.
    A. Kauppinen, M. Toiviainen, J. Aaltonen, O. Korhonen, K. Järvinen, M. Juuti, R. Pellinen, J. Ketolainen, Anal. Chem. 85, 2109-2116 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.A. Zeitler, Y.-C. Shen, in Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging, ed. By K.-E. Peiponen, J.A. Zeitler, M. Kuwata-Gonokami (Springer, Berlin, 2013), p. 451-459.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    C.J. Strachan, T. Rades, D. Newnham, K.C. Gordon, M. Pepper, P.F. Taday, Chem. Phys. Lett. 390, 20-20 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Wu, E.J. Heilweil, A.S. Hussain, M.A. Khan, Int. J. Pharm. 343, 148-158 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    G. Alderborn, Pharmaceutics the Science of Dosage Form Design, 2nd edn. (Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 2002).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Halenius, S. Lakio, O. Antikainen, J. Hatara, J. Yliruusi, AAPS PharmSciTech 15, 781-790 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. Bawuah, A. Pierotic Mendia, P. Silfsten, P. Pääkkönen, T. Ervasti, J. Ketolainen, J.A. Zeitler, K.-E. Peiponen, Int. J. Pharm. 465, 70-76 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    T. Ervasti, P. Silfsten, J. Ketolainen, K.-E. Peiponen, Appl. Spectrosc. 66, 319-323 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    T. Shibata, T. Mori, S. Kojima, Spectrochim. Acta A 150, 207-211 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, M. Koch, Laser Photonics Rev. 5, 124-166 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Y.-C. Shen, Int. J. Pharm. 417, 48-60 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    L.M. Zurk, S. Scheckman, in Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging, ed. By K.-E. Peiponen, J.A. Zeitler, M. Kuwata-Gonokami (Springer, Berlin, 2013), p. 95-115.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Jagannathan, A. J. Gatesman,R. H. Giles, Opt. Lett. 34, 1927-1929 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    P. Beckmann an A. Spizzichino, Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, Oxford, 1963).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    E. P. J. Parrott, J. A. Zeitler, L. F. Gladden, Opt. Lett. 34, 3722-3724 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. Silvennoinen, V. Hyvärinen, P. Raatikainen, K.-E. Peiponen, Int. J. Pharm. 199, 205-208 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    E. O. Kissi, P. Bawuah, P. Silfste, K.-E. Peiponen, J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves, 36, 278-290 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mousumi Chakraborty
    • 1
  • Prince Bawuah
    • 1
  • Nicholas Tan
    • 2
  • Tuomas Ervasti
    • 3
  • Pertti Pääkkönen
    • 1
  • J. Axel Zeitler
    • 2
  • Jarkko Ketolainen
    • 3
  • Kai-Erik Peiponen
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of PhotonicsUniversity of Eastern FinlandJoensuuFinland
  2. 2.Department of Chemical Engineering and BiotechnologyUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  3. 3.School of Pharmacy, Promis CentreUniversity of Eastern FinlandKuopioFinland

Personalised recommendations