THz Wave Modulators: A Brief Review on Different Modulation Techniques



We review different techniques for modulation of the electromagnetic properties of terahertz (THz) waves. We discuss various approaches for electronic, optical, thermal and nonlinear modulation in distinct material systems such as semiconductors, graphene, photonic crystals and metamaterials. The modulators are classified and compared with respect to modulation speed, modulation depth and categorized by the physical quantity they control as e.g. amplitude, phase, spectrum, spatial and temporal properties of the THz wave. Based on the review paper, the reader should obtain guidelines for the proper choice of a specific modulation technique in view of the targeted application.


Terahertz wave modulators Metamaterials, graphene Electronic modulation All-optical modulation Photonic crystal modulators Nonlinear tuning of metamaterials Magnetic field tuning 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physics and Research Center OPTIMASUniversity of KaiserslauternKaiserslauternGermany
  2. 2.Fraunhofer Institute for Physical Measurement Techniques IPMFreiburgGermany
  3. 3.Centre for THz ResearchChina Jiliang UniversityHangzhouChina
  4. 4.Department of PhysicsBoston CollegeChestnut HillUSA

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