Advertisement

Design of a W-band Frequency Tripler for Broadband Operation Based on a Modified Equivalent Circuit Model of GaAs Schottky Varistor Diode

  • Zhenhua Chen
  • Jinping Xu
Article

Abstract

This paper presents the design and experimental results of a W-band frequency tripler with commercially available planar Schottky varistor diodes DBES105a fabricated by UMS, Inc. The frequency tripler features the characteristics of tunerless, passive, low conversion loss, broadband and compact. Considering actual circuit structure, especially the effect of ambient channel around the diode at millimeter wavelength, a modified equivalent circuit model for the Schottky diode is developed. The accuracy of the magnitude and phase of S21 of the proposed equivalent circuit model is improved by this modification. Input and output embedding circuits are designed and optimized according to the corresponding embedding impedances of the modified circuit model of the diode. The circuit of the frequency tripler is fabricated on RT/Rogers 5880 substrate with thickness of 0.127 mm. Measured conversion loss of the frequency tripler is 14.5 dB with variation of ±1 dB across the 75 ~ 103 GHz band and 15.5 ~ 19 dB over the frequency range of 103 ~ 110 GHz when driven with an input power of 18 dBm. A recorded maximum output power of 6.8 dBm is achieved at 94 GHz at room temperature. The minimum harmonics suppression is greater than 12dBc over 75 ~ 110 GHz band.

Keywords

W-band Frequency multiplier Frequency tripler Equivalent circuit Schottky diode 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors wish to thank Dr. M. Morgan from NRAO and Mr. P. Sobis from Omnisystems for detailed suggestions about the tripler design. The authors also acknowledge the preliminary research work by Dr. C.F. Yao. Helpful discussions were provided by M. Chen, D.Z. Ding and K. Yin. This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant No.60921063.

References

  1. 1.
    M. H. Zhao, Y. Fan, D. K. Wu, and J. K. Zhan, “The investigation of W-band Microstrip integrated high order frequency multiplier based on the nonlinear model of avalanche diode,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, PIER 85, 439–453, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. Zhang, Y. Fan, Z. Chen, X. F. Yang, and F. Q. Zhong, “An improved 110-130-GHz fixed-tuned subharmonic mixer with compact microstrip resonant cell structure,” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 25, 411–420, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Maestrini, “Frequency multipliers for local oscillators at THz frequencies,” invited paper, Proceedings of 4th ESA Workshop on Millimeter Technology and Applications, 1–6, 2006.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    I. Mehdi, J. Ward, A. Maestrini, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht and J. Gill, “Pushing the limits of multiplier-based local oscillator chains,” Proceedings of 19th international Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, Groningen, 28–30, 2008.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Micovic, A. Kurdoghlian, P. Hashimoto, M. Hu, M. Antcliffe, P. J. Willadsen, W. S. Wong, R. Bowen, I. Milosavljevic, Y. Yoon, A. Schmitz, M. Wetzel, and D. H. Chow, “GaN MMICs for RF power applications in the 50 GHz to 110 GHz frequency range,” Phys. Stat. Sol, Vol. 5, No. 6, 2044–2046, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Vahdati and A. Abdipour, “Nonlinear stability analysis of microwave oscillators using the periodic averaging method,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, PIER 79, 179–193, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. Zhang, J. Wang and C. Tong, “Progress in theoretical design and numerical simulation of high power terahertz backward wave oscillator,” PIERS Online, Vol. 4, No. 3, 311–315, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. Chattopadhyay et al, “An all-solid-state broadband frequency multiplier chain at 1500 GHz,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 52, No. 5, May, 2004.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Maestrini, J. Ward, G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht and I. Mehdi “Terahertz sources based on frequency multiplication and their applications,” invited paper, Journal of RF-Engineering and Telecommunications, Vol. 62, Issue. 5, 118–112, 2008.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. F. Yao, “Research on microwave and millimeter wave frequency mixing and multiplying techniques and their applications,” PhD dissertation, Southeast University, 2009.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Morgan and S. Weinreb, “A full waveguide band MMIC tripler for 75–110 GHz,” IEEE MTT-S Intl. Microwave Symp. Digest, 103–106, Phoenix, AZ,2001.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
    J. V. Siles, A. Maestrini, B. Alderman et al, “A single-waveguide in-phase power-combined frequency doubler at 190 GHz,” IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 21, No. 6, 332–334, June 2011.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
    B. C. Thomas, “Study and development of a heterodyne receiver at submillimeter wavelengths for the remote sensing of planets’ atmosphere and surface,” PhD dissertation, University of P&M Curie, Paris 6, 2004.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. L. Hesler, “Planar Schottky diodes in submillimeter wavelength waveguide receivers,” PhD dissertation, University of Virginia, 1996.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. S. Kamaljeet, “Development of frequency multiplier technology for ALMA,” ALMA Memo 337.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Marsh, B. Alderman, D. Matheson and P. de Maagt, “Design of low-cost 183 GHz subharmonic mixers for commercial applications,” IET Circuits Devices Syst, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1–6, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    P. L. Werner, R. Mittra and D. H. Werner, “Extraction of equivalent circuits for microstrip components and discontinuities using the genetic algorithm,” IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, Vol. 8, No. 10, 333–335, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    V. Mikhelashvill, G. Eisenstein, R. Uzdin, “Extraction of Schottky diodes parameters with a bias dependent barrier height,” Solid-State Electronics, Vol. 45, No. 1, 143–148, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. Maestrini, J. S. Ward, J. J. Gill, H. S. Javadi, E. Schlecht et al, “A 540-640-GHz high-efficiency four-anode frequency tripler,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 53, No. 9, 2835–2843, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    C. Nguyen, “Development of an extremely wide-band planar frequency doubler from Q-band to W-band,” International Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Vol. 8, No. 3, 199–025, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    H. Wang, “Design and modeling of monolithic circuits Schottky diode on a GaAs substrate at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths heterodyne receivers for multi-pixel and on board satellites dedicated to planetary aeronomy,” PhD dissertation, University of P&M Curie, Paris 6, 2009.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Millimeter WavesSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations